(으)ㄴ/는 척하다 pretend to

verb+는 척하다(present)
verb+(으)ㄴ 척하다(past)
adj+(으)ㄴ 척하다

-(으)ㄴ/는 척하다 is attached to a verb, it means ‘to pretend” or “act like(fake)”. For example,
자는 척하지 마. Don’t act like you are sleeping.
너 괜히 아픈 척하는 거지? You are pretending to be sick, right?
다 알면서 모르는 척하고 있어요. (she/he) is pretending not to know, even though (she/he) knows everything.
먹었으면서 안 먹은 척하고 있네. You are acting like you didn’t eat even though you ate.
나 안 좋아하면서 그 동안 좋아하는 척한 거였어? Did you pretend to like me even though you didn’t like me?
곰을 만났을 때 죽은 척하고 있으면 안 돼요. You shouldn’t pretend to be dead when you see a bear.

As you can see, (으)ㄴ 척하다 often comes with (으)면서 because (으)면서 means ‘have two opposite actions/situations at the same time”. If you want to learn more about (으)면서, please click here.

-를 위하다 / -기 위하다

-를 위한, -를 위해서, -기 위한, -기 위해서

위하다 means ‘for’ or ‘in order to’. It can take an object or a noun clause. When it takes an object, it is ‘-을/를 위하다’ and when it takes an noun clause, it is ‘-기(를) 위하다’.

When 위하다 modifies a noun, we use 위한 or 위하는. For example, -를 위한, -기(를) 위한. When 위하다 modifies a verb, we use as 위하여 or 위해(서).

noun위한 + noun
noun 위해서 + verb
verb(를) 위한 + noun
verb(를) 위해서 + verb = verb(으)려고 + verb (click here to learn 으려고)

For example,
너를 위한 기도 pray for you
너를 위해서 나는 내 삶을 버렸어. I gave up my life for you.
집을 사기 위해서 열심히 돈을 벌었어요. I worked hard to buy a house.
컴퓨터 엔지니어가 되기 위해 컴퓨터 공학을 공부하려고 합니다. I am going to study computer science to become an computer engineer.


You probably heard 위해서라면 in K-songs a lot.
-(이)라면 means ‘if’, thus 위해서라면 means ‘if it is for (someone)’. For example,

널 위해서라면 난 슬퍼도 강한 척할 수가 있었어. For you(If it is for you), I could pretend to be strong even though I was sad. (Fake Love by BTS)
나라를 지키기 위해서라면 제 목숨까지 바치겠습니다. If it is for protecting our country, I can devote my life.

-은/는 comparison/emphasize

I think you already know about 은/는 as topic particle or comparison particle. If you haven’t learned 은/는 topic particle, please click here and learn more.

-은/는 are also used as ’emphasize’ a noun, an adverb or an ending. For example,
내 이름을 보고 그냥 가 버렸어요. (Someone) looked at my name, and then just left.
바빠도 밥 먹어야지요. Even if you are very busy, you should eat food.
한테도 잘못 있어. It is also your fault too.
사랑 따위 없어. There is no such thing, love.
그렇게 빨리 못 가. I can’t go that fast.
너무 멀리 가지 마. Don’t go too far.
너무 힘들어 하지 마. Don’t be too hard.

And -은/는 also often come with partial negation such as 모두/다/항상 + -지는 않다, 지는 못하다, ㄹ 수는 있다/없다, 것은-아니다. For example,
돈이 많다고 해서 모든 사람이 행복한 것 아니다. Not every one is happy even if they are rich.
내가 그것까지 해 줄 수 없어. That is the final straw. (I can do anything but not that one)
그것이 좋은 결과를 가져 오지 않았다. That didn’t bring a good result.
돈이 모든 일을 해결해 주지 않아. Not everything you can solve with money.

Do not -지 말다

-지 말다 is attached to a verb, it means ‘do not’, it makes a imperative sentence. -지 말다 can be used with these endings depending on who you are talking to. A good thing is that you don’t need to worry about the conjugation!!! You can simply put a verb with -지 말다.

-지 마 is 반말(plain form), so it is used to someone who is your friend and younger people. If you haven’t learned 반말, please click here. (You will hear -지 마라 in a K-drama, -지 마라 form is more formal than -지 마. )
-지 말아요( is used for when you talk to someone who is similar age(maybe older than you). -지 마세요(-지 말+(으)세요 => ㄹ drop) is an honorific form, so it is used to someone who are older than you or public.

For example,
to a friend or young person
하지 마. Don’t do.
가지 마. Don’t go. (Let’s watch 가지 마, 가지마 by 브라운 아이즈.)
떠나지 마. Don’t leave.

to a person who is a little older than you.
그런 말하지 말아요. Don’t say that.
가지 말아요. Don’t go.
잊지 말아요. Don’t forget. (You can hear it in “잊지 말아요.Don’t forget” by 백지영)

For someone who are way older than you.
들어가지 마세요. Do not enter.
담배를 피우지 마세요. Do not smoke.
울지 마세요. Do not cry.
떠나가지 마세요. Do not leave. (I found an old song that I listened to when I was young ^^. 떠나가지 마세요 by 언타이틀)

Particle -(이)나


In this post, we are talking about (이)나, (이)나 is very common particle that comes on TOPIK. Let’s find out!

1. ‘choice’ , ‘A or B’.
주스를 주세요. Please give me tea or juice.
중국이나 미국에 갈 거예요. I am going to China or U.S.
경제학이나 경영학을 공부하고 싶어요. I want to study economics or business.

2. The previous noun is not the best choice or my favorite, but I still choose it.
밥은 없는데 그냥 이거 먹어. We don’t have rice, just eat this. (this is not the best choice, but I still give it to you.)
할 일도 없는데 영화 보지요. 뭐. I don’t have things to do, well, let’s watch a movie. (movie is not the best choice, but it is okay. )
밥이나 먹자. Let’s eat. (Eating is not my favorite thing to do now, but let’s do it.)

3. 이나 is attached 몇, 며칠, 얼마, it expresses “to ask/guess the number/amount” (Most cases you can omit 이나, because there is already a question word.)
사람이 몇 명이나 모였어요? How many people were there?
상하이를 여행하려면 며칠이나 걸려요? How many days does it take to travel Shanghai?
아이가 몇 살이나 됐어요? How old is the kid?

4. 이나 is attached to a number, it express that the number is more than the speaker expected.
어제 거기서 한 시간이나 기다렸어요. I waited for one hour over there yesterday. (one hour was very long time.)
비용이 백만 원이나 들어요? Does it cost one million Won? (one million Won is too much.)
** It is often compared with -밖에, please click here to learn the difference.

5. 이나 is attached to question words, 언제, 어디, 누구, 무엇, 아무, 아무 noun, it expresses ‘every’. We can translate as ‘—ever’
민수는 언제나 친절하게 사람을 대해요. Minsu always(whenever) treat people very friendly.
누구나(아무나) 들어올 수 있습니다. Anyone(Whoever) can come in.
무엇이나 물어보세요. Ask me anything(whatever).
공기는 어디에나 있어요. Air is everywhere(wherever).
아무 거나 다 잘 먹어요. I can eat any thing(whatever).

6. It doesn’t matter whether it is A or B.
지금이나 변한 게 별로 없네요. There is not much different before and now.
샌드위치 피자 다 괜찮아요. I am okay with sandwich or pizza, it doesn’t matter.

If you have any questions, please leave a comment in this post. 아무 질문이나 상관없어요! ^^

답다 vs 스럽다

답다 and 스럽다 both are used attached to a noun, make a noun into an adjective, but they slightly have different meanings, and nouns with 답다 and 스럽다 are quite different. (** 답다 and 스럽다 both have ㅂ irregular, please click here to learn more ㅂ irregular.)

답다 means a person, animal or an item has their own characters or quality.
For example,
남자답다 -> (to a man) 남자답게 말해! (Speak like a man!)
여자답다 -> (to a woman) 연주는 정말 여자다운 사람이에요. (Yeonju has such a feminine person. 답다+(으)ㄴmodifying)
사람답다 -> 요즘은 사람다운 사람이 별로 없어요. (There are not many people like true human in theses days.)
철수답다. -> A: 어제 철수가 또 늦게 왔어요. B: 철수답네. (철수 is always late, so it is quite true 철수.)
너답다. -> A: 어제 길에서 어떤 할머니 무거운 짐을 들어 드렸어요. B: 정말 너답다. (B always helps other people)
여름 날씨답다 -> 이번 주는 여름 날씨다운 날이 계속되겠습니다. (The summer weather is quite like the summer weather.)
어른답다 -> (to an adult) 그 사람은 나이를 40이나 먹었는데도 어른답게 말할 줄을 몰라요. (She is 40 years old, but she doesn’t know how to speak like an adult. In this case, 어른스럽다 is wrong because she is actually an adult.)

스럽다 means a person or an item has the quality or feeling of the noun, nouns with 스럽다 can be personality, character, situation or feelings. And a lot of ‘noun스럽다’ words can be changed into ‘noun하다(adjective)’, but 스럽다 feels less strong than 하다.
For example,
어른스럽다(like an adult)-> (to a kid) 와, 저 아이는 정말 어른스럽게 말하네요. (아이 is like an adult. In this case, 어른답다 is wrong because a kid is not an adult.)
사랑스럽다(has loving feeling) -> 너는 정말 사랑스러워. (You are so lovable. )
실망스럽다(disappointed) -> 실망스럽게 해서 미안해. (I am sorry because I made you disappointed.)

Also, these nouns below often come with 스럽다, bold texts are frequently used words.










If you have any questions about 답다 and 스럽다, please leave a comment in this post!

How to read phone numbers?

Reading phone numbers in Korean

To read phone numbers, we need to know Sino Korean numbers, which is 일, 이, 삼, 사, 오, 육, 칠, 팔, 구, 십… (Click here to learn Sino Korean numbers), but we need one more number which is 0. 0 in Korean is either 공 or 영. We use 공 for more than 영 because 공 is easy to pronounce.

Then how to ask someone’s phone number?

전화 번호가 몇 번이에요?  What is your phone number?  
핸드폰 번호가 몇 번이에요? What is your cell phone number? 

Phone number in Korean is 전화 번호 and Cell phone number in Korean is 핸드폰 번호(or 휴대전화 번호). I know! 핸드폰 is literally 핸드(Hand) + 폰(phone), it is Konglish. 🙂 It is funny, right?

Korean cell phone numbers mostly start with 010, let’s read them together.

010-4435-0976      공일공, 사사삼오, 공구칠육.

We read ‘-‘ as 에, so you can read it 공일공에 사사삼오에 공구칠육. When you answer for someone’s question, you have to say it as a full sentence. For example, 010-4435-0976이에요. Adding ‘-이에요’ or ‘-예요’, it depends on a final consonant for the last number. I bet you already know this.

Now you can ask phone numbers in Korean!









Phone numbers in Korea

  • 119 : emergency phone number
  • 82 is Korean country code.
  • 02 is Seoul code.
  • When you make a phone call from abroad, you will dial 82-10 instead of 010 for cell phones, or 82-2 instead of 02 if you dial to a Seoul phone number.

If you want to learn Native Korean Numbers, please click here.

[Reading] 흥부와 놀부3

Tales from Korea_2013_06-1

놀부는 흥부가 부자가 되었다는 이야기를 듣고 질투가 났어요. 놀부는 돈을 더 가지고 싶었어요. 그래서 놀부는 제비 한 마리를 잡아서 다리를 부러 뜨렸어요. 그리고 다리를 치료해 주었어요. 다음 해에 제비가 다시 돌아왔을 때 씨를 가지고 왔어요. 놀부가 씨를 심었더니 다음 날 큰 호박이 자랐어요. 놀부는 너무 행복했어요.

놀부와 놀부 아내는 노래를 부르면서 큰 호박을 자르기 시작했어요. 첫 번째 호박에서 똥이 가득 나왔어요. 놀부와 놀부의 아내는 실망해서 두 번째 호박을 잘랐어요. 두번 째 호박에서 도깨비가 나왔어요. 도깨비는 놀부와 아내를 방망이로 때리기 시작했어요.  그리고 놀부의 돈과 집을 가지고 사라졌어요.

놀부와 놀부의 아내는 이제 돈도 없고 집도 없어요. 그래서 흥부 집으로 찾아 갔어요. 흥부가 말했어요. “형님, 어서 오세요. 이제 우리 사이좋게 같이 살아요.”

놀부는 그 동안 자신이 했던 나쁜 일들을 후회했어요. 흥부와 놀부는 행복하게 살았어요.

<New words>
질투가 나다: to be jealous
부러 뜨리다 : to break
-더니 : to express reminiscing about things in the past, a sudden change of action
-(으)면서: while (do two actions at the same time. Click here to learn more)
똥 : poop
가득 : fully 
실망하다 : to be disappointed 
도깨비: Korean traditional goblin
방망이: bat
때리다 : to beat
사라지다 : to disappear
찾아가다 : to visit someone
사이좋게 살다/지내다: to live in peace
후회하다 : to regret

Particle 도 : also, too (vs 또)

-도 means ‘also’ or ‘too’. It is not an adverb, it is a particle which is attached to a noun(no space between noun and -도). And -도 cannot be with Topic particle(-은/는), Subject particle(-이/가) and Object particle(-을/를), which -도 substitute those particles. For example,

A: 저는 한국 사람이에요. (I am Korean.)
B: 저 한국 사람이에요. (I am also Korean.)
C: 저요! (Me too!)

A : 저는 사과를 좋아해요. 배 좋아해요. (I like apples. I also like pears.)

A: 저는 사과를 좋아해요. 동생 사과를 좋아해요. (I like apples. My sister/brother also likes apples)

A: 저는 기타를 쳐요. 그리고 피아노 쳐요. (I play guitar. And I also play piano.)


*A lot of my students get confused by -도 and because they have similar pronunciation and meaning. But they are different.

-도 is a particle while is an adverb which -도 is attached to a noun but is used independently. And -도 means ‘also’ or ‘too’, means ‘again’, ‘and’ or ‘in addition’.  For example,
사과를 먹었어요. (I also ate an apple. -> no space between 저and 도)
사과를 먹었어요. (I ate an apple again. -> a space between 저 and 또)

민수는 한국 사람이에요. 수지 한국 사람이에요. (Minsu is Korean. Suji is also Korean.)
민수는 자전거를 탈 수 있어요. 운전 할 수 있어요. (Minsu can ride a bike. And he can also drive a car.)


[reading] 흥부와 놀부 -2 Heungbu and Nolbu -2

<이전 이야기 읽기 Click here to read previous story>

Tales from Korea_2013_06-1

어느 날, 흥부는 집 밖에 있는 나무에서 새 소리를 들었어요. 흥부가 보니까 큰 뱀이 새를 잡아 먹으려고 하고 있었어요. 그래서 흥부는 빗자루로 뱀을 때려서 쫓았어요. 그때 새 한 마리가 둥지에서 떨어져 다리를 크게 다쳤어요. 흥부는 새 다리를 치료해 주고 새를 돌봐 주었어요.

겨울이 되었어요. 새는 잘 커서 따뜻한 남쪽으로 날아갔어요.

다음 해 봄이 되었어요. 날씨가 아주 좋은 어느 날, 그 새가 다시 집에 찾아왔어요. 새는 씨 하나를 흥부에게 주었어요. 흥부와 흥부 가족은 씨를 심었어요. 씨는 아주 빨리 자라서 큰 호박이 되었어요. 흥부 가족은 큰 호박으로 음식을 만들기로 했어요. 흥부와 흥부의 아내는 호박을 자르기 시작했어요.

그런데 호박에서 쌀이 아주 많이 나왔어요. 다음 호박에서는 돈이 많이 나왔어요. 다음 호박에서는 큰 집이 나왔어요. 흥부 가족은 이제 부자가 되었어요!

<새 단어 New words>

소리: sound
듣다 in 들었어요: to listen, hear (Click here to learn more about ㄷ irregular)
A-(으)니까: found out something after doing A (Click here to learn more)
뱀: snake
잡아 먹다: to catch (to eat)
-(으)려고 하다: is going to, is about to (Click here to learn more)
-고 있다: action in progress, -ing (Click here to learn more)
빗자루: broom 
때리다: to beat, hit
쫓다: to kick someone out
둥지: bird’s nest
떨어지다: to fall down
다치다: to get injured 
크게 다치다: to get injured badly
치료하다: to cure, care, give some medical treatment
돌보다: to take care
아 주다: to do for someone (Click here to learn more)
따뜻하다: to be warm
(으)ㄴ: noun modifier for adjective (Click here to learn more)
남쪽: south
날아가다: to fly away
찾아오다: to visit to see someone
씨: seed
씨를 심다: to plant seeds
자라다: to grow 
호박: pumpkin, squash
-기로 하다: to plan to do, to decide to do (Click here to learn more)
자르다: to cut
-기 시작하다: to begin to do 
쌀: rice
돈: money
나오다: to come out
부자: rich person
-이/가 되다: to become