Mis-spelled/mis-pronunced by Koreans

전화할(x) -> 전화할(o) : Actually (으)ㄹ게’s pronunciation is 을께, but the writing is still 을게.

야(X) -> 내 야(ㅇ) : 거 is often pronounced as ‘꺼’ as in ‘(으)ㄹ 거 [을 꺼]’ or ‘noun 거 [noun 꺼]’, but the writing is still 거. 

되요(x) -> 돼요 (o) :  A lot of Korean can’t recognize the difference between ‘ㅚ’ and ‘ㅙ’, so they often mis-spell these. The infinitive form for ‘to become’ is ‘되다’, so when we conjugate with 아/어/해, it should become ‘돼(되+어)’ like  되 + 어요/었어요 should be written 돼요 and 됐어요. However when 되다 conjugate with (으) or consonants, it remains as 되. For example, 게요(되+(으)ㄹ게요), 수 있어요(되+(으)ㄹ 수 어요), 되면 (되+(으)면), 되고, 되지 되게

뵈요(X)-> 봬요 (O): This is also the same as 돼요.  The writing is 봬요, 뵀어요, 봬서… and 뵐게요, 뵐 거예요, 뵈면, 뵙고, 뵙지, 뵙게 (뵈다 is changed into 뵙 when it is in front of consonant endings like 고, 지, 게) 

않 돼요(x) -> 안 돼요(o) : 안 is an adverb, it locates in front of verbs and adjectives to negate verbs and adjectives. 않 is in  –지 않아요, which is a long negation. 

잠궈요. (X) -> 잠가요 (O) : The infinitive form for ‘to lock’ is ‘잠그다’, but a lot of Koreans read this as ‘잠구다’. Therefore they mis-conjugate 잠구+어요, but the accurate one is 잠그+아/어요(으 irregular) => 잠가요. 

사겨요 (X) -> 사귀어요.(O) : The infinitive form for ‘to make friend’ is ‘사귀다’, many Koreans read this as ‘사기다’. Therefore they mis-conjugate ‘사기+어요=> 사겨요(X)’, but the correct one is ‘사귀+어요 => 사귀어요”. 

Let me know if you hear or see something that Koreans mis-spell or mis-pronounce!

#사겨요 #잠궈요 #담궈요 #돼요vs되요 #봬요vs뵈요 #봴게요 #뵈요 #되요 #않다 #않 #을께 #꺼

-겠-

verb/adjective+겠+endings

-겠- can have different meanings depending on the subject.

When -겠- is with the first person subject(I), it expresses strong will.
When -겠- is with the second person subject(you), it is used for asking second person’s will or sympathizing the second person’s(your) situation.
When -겠-is with the third person subject(he/she/it), it means ‘I am guessing the third person’s situation/action’.

For example,
First person>>
올해에는 꼭 담배를 끊겠어요. I will quit smoking this year.
열심히 일하겠습니다. I will work hard!.

Second person>
뭐 드시겠어요? What would you like to drink?
그거 저한테 주시겠어요? Would you please give that to me?
A: 지난 달에 교통사고를 당해서 병원에 입원했다가 이번주에 퇴원했어요. B: 어머, 많이 힘드셨겠어요. (A: I got into a car accident last month, I was hospitalized for a while and I was just discharged this week. B: Oh, gosh! You must have had a hard time!)
** In English, when someone hear bad news, he/she says “I am sorry“, but Koreans say “힘드셨겠어요” or “아프셨겠어요.” which mean “You must have had hard time” or “You must have had a lot of pain”. In Korean, “I am sorry” only means “apology” and it doesn’t have a meaning of “sympathy” which is “feel sorry”. We also add “어떡해요...” If you want to learn 어떡해요, click here.
A: 어제 오랜만에 친구 만나서 얘기 많이 했어요. B: 좋았겠네. (A: I met my friend yesterday who I have not seen for a while, and we had a great time. B: You must felt happy!)


Third person>>
하늘을 보니까 곧 비가 오겠는데요. I see the sky, it looks like it will rain soon.
이번 주에 날씨가 춥겠습니다. 따뜻한 옷 입고 나가세요. It will be cold this week, wear warm clothes.
5시까지 일을 끝내기 힘들겠어요. It looks like it is hard to finish by 5.
내일 춥겠지? (Do you also think) Will it be cold tomorrow? (-지? is to ask someone for agreement)

#겠 #겠어요 #겠습니다 #겠grammar #겠meaning #i am sorry in korean #어떡해 #어떻게 #sympathy korean #feel sorry korean #겠네

Korean particles 4

25. 마저 : even (the last thing that I expected, speaker didn’t want to happen)
마저 나를 속이다니… Even you lied to me…. (everyone lied to me and you are the last person that I expected)
비가 많이 오는 데다가 바람마저 세차게 불어 앞조차 볼 수 없었다. It rained so much, and even the wind was so strong, I couldn’t see even in front of me.
경제 위기로 인해 대기업마저 어려움을 겪고 있습니다. Due to the economy crisis, even big corporation is having a difficult time.

26. 조차 : even (the last thing that I expected, speaker didn’t want to happen. Often comes with negation)
만 원은커녕 천 원조차 없어. Don’t say 10,000Won, I don’t even have 1,000Won. (click here to learn 은/는커녕)
배가 아파서 물조차 마실 수 없어요. My stomach hurts so much, I can’t even drink water.
너무 바빠서 물 마실 시간조차 없어요. Because I am very busy, I don’t even have time to drink water.

27. 까지2 : even (the last thing that I expected. It can be used for good situation and bad situation)
내 생일 파티에 미국에 사는 친구까지 왔다. Even my friend who lives abroad came to my birthday party.
까지 나를 속이다니… Even you lied to me…

28. 뿐 : only, just (Often used as 뿐이다 or (으)ㄹ 뿐만 아니라 )
나한테는 너이야. For me, you are the only one. (=나한테는 너밖에 없어.)

도박을 하다가 돈뿐만 아니라 집도 잃어버렸다. I lost not only my money but also my house while gambling.
그 아이는 학교에서뿐만 아니라 집에서도 돌봐 주는 사람이 없었다. It is not only at the school but also at home, no one takes care of that kid.
그 사람은 성격이 좋을 뿐만 아니라 얼굴도 잘 생겼다. Not only does he have a good personality, but he also is handsome.

29. 치고
1) exception
초등학생치고 키가 꽤 크네요. He is very tall for an elementary student. (exception)
마이클 씨는 외국인치고 한국말을 정말 잘하는 편이에요. Michael is a foreigner, (but he is an exception) he can speak Korean very well.
2) 치고 + negation : no exception
한국 사람치고 김치를 싫어하는 사람은 없을 거예요. There is no Korean who doesn’t like Kimchi. (no exception)
부모치고 자기 자식을 때리고 싶은 사람이 어디 있겠어요? As parents, there is no one who wants to beat their child. (no exception)

30. noun+대로, verb+는 대로

31. noun+ 은/는커녕, v/a+기는커녕

32.noun+(이)야말로 : this noun is the best. It takes -이다 at the end of the sentence.
세종대왕이야말로 내가 제일 존경하는 왕이다. King Sejong the Great is the king I respect the most.
우리 엄마야말로 나를 제일 잘 이해해주는 사람이지요. My mother is the person who understands me most.
이런 집이야말로 누구나 살고 싶어하는 집일 겁니다. This is the house that everyone wants to live in.
이 차야말로 세상에서 가장 비쌉니다. (X) -> 이 차야말로 세상에서 가장 비싼 차입니다. (O)

33. 더러/보고 + indirect speech : to a person (=한테)
선생님이 너더러 교실로 오래. The teacher ask you to come to the classroom.
옆집 친구가 우리 엄마보고 할머니라고 불렀다. A friend next door called my mom a grandmother.

A kid song – 이웃집 순이

34. 이라야
1) used when the thing is only possible as a precondition of something.
열심히 일해서 번 돈이라야 떳떳하게 쓸 수 있다. The money earned through hard work can only be used proudly.
2) used to imply that one is speaking in such a way that one does not think something is important.(=이라고는)
가진 것이라야 집 한 채가 전부입니다. All I have is a house. (= 가진 것이라고는 집 한 채가 전부입니다.)

#이라야 #라야 #라고는 #이라고는 #더러 #보고 #커녕 #는커녕 #은커녕 #대로 #는대로 #치고 #뿐 #까지 #밖에 #조차 #마저

-아/어/해 버리다

verb+아/어/해 버리다

-아/어/해 버리다 means an action is complete done or finished and the nuance is that the speaker feels pity or not satisfied and sometimes the speaker want to express to feel relieved because of the result.

Examples for the speaker feels pity or not satisfied about the result.

미안해요. 약속을 잊어버렸어요. I am so sorry, I completely forgot our appointment.
지갑을 잃어버려서 돈이 하나도 없어요. I don’t have any money because I lost my wallet.
친구한테 주려고 케이크를 만들었는데 제 동생이 다 먹어버렸어요. I made a cake for my friend, but my sister ate them all!
친구가 말도 없이 이사를 가버려서 정말 섭섭했어요. I felt very sad because my friend moved without letting me know.
남자 친구와 헤어진 다음에 사진을 다 찢어 버렸어요. I tore up all the pictures after I broke up with my boyfriend.
부모님이 주신 돈을 다 써 버렸어요. I used up all of the money that my parents gave me.
내 과거들 다 지워버리고 싶어요. I want to erase my past.

A clip of KBS drama [누가 뭐래도No matter what] episode 109

Examples for the speaker feel relieved about an action.
밀린 일을 다 해 버리고 나니까 기분이 좋네요. I feel great after I completely done all the overdue work.
숙제를 다 해 버려서 이제 시간이 많이 있어요. I have a lot of time now because I finished all of my homework.
마당에 자란 잡초들을 모두 뽑아 버렸어요. I pull all the weeds out in my yard.
모든 걱정을 떨쳐 버리고 이제 앞으로의 일만 생각하세요. Forget about your worries and think about the future.

-(으)면 어떻게 해/어떡해

(으)면 어떻게 해 what am I supposed to do?

(으)면 어떻게 해 literally means “if you do, what should I do/what am I supposed to do/how is going to be?”.

It is used for two situations. The first one is that the speaker is worried if an action happens like the literal meaning. It is often used with 어떡하지? which is a sentence ending for the speaker talking to him/herself. For example,

이번에도 시험에 떨어지면 어떡하지? What should I do if I fail the test again?
오늘 밤에 비가 오면 어떡하지? 내일 소풍 날인데… What should I do if it rains tonight? It is a picnic day tomorrow….
찬호가 안 오면 어떡하지? What am I supposed to do if Chanho doesn’t come?
엄마가 알면 어떡하지? What should I do if mom knows this?

And the second situation is that the speaker doesn’t want someone to do the action or the speaker is blaming someone for an action. So the real nuance is “why did you do it?”, “You shouldn’t have done it” or “I don’t know what to do if you do it, so please don’t do it”. For example,

이렇게 가면 나는 어떻게 해? If you leave me, I don’t know what to do.
너 동생을 때리면 어떡해? You hit your little brother/sister, what is wrong with you? (so you shouldn’t have hit your little brother/sister)
네 것도 아닌데 가지고 오면 어떡하니? This is not yours, why did you bring it over here? (what am I supposed to do?)
형도 줘야지 네가 다 먹으면 어떡하니? You should share it with your older brother, you ate all of it!

#면어떡해 #가면어떡해 #가면어떻게 #어떻게 #어떡해 #어떻게해 #어떡하니 #어떡하라고 #어떡하지 #으면 어떻게 #으면 어떡해


Question words and sentences for beginners

뭐 what

이름이 뭐예요? What is your name?
이거 뭐예요? What is this?
ㅇㅇㅇ이/가 뭐예요? What is ㅇㅇㅇ?
뭐 먹어요? What are you eating?
뭐 좋아해요? What do you like?
뭐 보고 싶어요? What do you want to watch?
뭐 먹고 싶어요? What do you want to eat?

무슨 what + noun

무슨 영화 좋아해요? What kind of movie do you like?
무슨 음식 먹고 싶어요? What kind of food do you want to eat?
무슨 책 읽어요? What kind of book are you reading?
무슨 요일에 가요? What day are you going?
무슨 선물 줄 거예요? What kind of gift are you going to give?

어느 which + noun

어느 나라에서 왔어요? Which country are you coming from?
어느 나라 사람이에요? Which country person are you? (where are you from?)
어느 회사에 다녀요? Which company are you working at?

어디 where

어디에 살아요? Where do you live?
어디에 가요? Where are you going?
지금 어디에 있어요? Where are you now?
가방이 어디에 있어요? Where is the bag?
어디에 가고 싶어요? Where do you want to go?
어디에서 만나요? Where are we meeting? / Where are you meeting?
어디에서 먹어요? Where are we eating? / Where are you eating?

누구 / 누가 who : 누구 “who” as a object, 누가 “who” as a subject

누구세요? Who is it?
이정은 씨가 누구예요? Who is 이정은?
누구 만나요? Who are you meeting?
누구하고 가요? Who are you going with?
누구 좋아해요? Who do you like?
누가 말했어요? Who said it?
누가 먹었어요? Who ate it?
누가 만들었어요? Who made it?

언제 when

한글날이 언제예요? When is 한글 day?
생일이 언제였어요? When was your birthday?
언제 왔어요? When did you come?
언제 쉬어요? When is your day off?
언제 갈 거예요? When are you going?

몇 how many + counter

동생이 몇 살이에요? How old is your younger sibling?
지금 몇 학년이에요? What grade are you now?
바나나 몇 개 샀어요? How many bananas did you buy?
파티에 몇 명 왔어요? How many people came to the party?
몇 개 필요해요? How many do you need?
몇 시간 공부해요? How many hours are you studying?

얼마 how much (about money)

얼마예요? How much is it?
장학금 얼마 받아요? How much do you get the scholarship?

얼마나 how long
얼마나 걸려요? How long does it take?

왜 why

왜 한국에 왔어요? Why did you come to Korea?
왜 한국어 공부해요? Why are you studying Korean?
왜 오늘 학교에 안 왔어요? Why didn’t you come to school?

어떻게 how

학교에 어떻게 와요? How do you come to school?
이거 한국말로 어떻게 말해요? How can I say this in Korean?
어떻게 읽어요? How should I read?

는 것 같다 / 나 보다 / ㄴ 듯하다/ㄴ 모양이다 looks like

present : verb+는 것 같다, adj +(으)ㄴ 것 같다, noun + 인 것 같다
past : verb+(으)ㄴ 것 같다
future : verb/adj + (으)ㄹ 것 같다, noun+일 것 같다

present : verb+나 보다 / adj +(으)ㄴ가 보다
past : v/a+았/었/했나 보다

present : verb+는 듯하다/adj+(으)ㄴ 듯하다
past : verb+(으)ㄴ 듯하다
future : v/a+(으)ㄹ 듯하다

present : verb+는 모양이다 / adj+(으)ㄴ 모양이다
past : verb+(으)ㄴ 모양이다
future : v/a+(으)ㄹ 모양이다

는 것 같다, –는 듯하다, 나 보다 and 는 모양이다 all mean ‘looks like’ or ‘seems like’, but they are slightly different.

는 것 같다 is used two different situation. One is ‘looks like’ which is used for ‘assumption’ and ‘I think(mostly refuse or can’t)’ which is used for ‘speaker’s opinion. If 는 것 같아요 is used for the first meaning, we can switch with other three, however if it is the second meaning, we can’t. For example,

1)밖에 비가 오는 것 같아요. (=오나 봐요/오는 듯해요/오는 모양이에요) It looks like it is raining outside.
2)아이가 길을 잃은 것 같아요.. (=잃었나 봐요/잃은 듯해요/ 잃은 모양이에요) It looks like the kid is lost.
3)돈이 많은 것 같아요.. (=많은가 봐요/많은 듯해요/많은 모양이에요) It looks like someone has a lot of money.
4) 비가 올 것 같아요.. (=비가 올 듯해요/비가 올 건가 봐요/비가 올 모양이에요.)
5)그 사람 돈이 많은 것 같아요.. (=돈이 많은가 봐요/돈이 많은 듯해요/돈이 많은 모양이에요.
6)민수 얼굴이 어두운 걸 보니까 무슨 일이 있는 것 같아요.. (=있나 봐요/있는 듯해요/있는 모양이에요)
7)두 사람이 말을 안 하는 걸 보니까 싸운 것 같아요.. (=싸웠나 봐요/싸운 듯해요/싸운 모양이에요.)
8)오늘 몸이 아파서 수업을 못 할 것 같아요.. I think I can’t have a lesson today because I am sick.
9) 시간이 없어서 못 만날 것 같아요.. I think I can’t see you because I don’t have time.
10) 오늘 일이 일찍 끝날 것 같은데 차나 한잔 할까요? I think I will be finished at work early today, would you like to have a cup of tea together?
11) 제 생각에는 정희 씨가 가지고 간 것 같아요.. I think 정희 took it.
11a) 제 생각에는 정희 씨가 가지고 갔나 봐요.(X)
12) 정희 씨가 가지고 간 것 같아요.. (=정희 씨가 가지고 갔나 봐요.) Looks like 정희 took it.
13) (after speaker heard someone speaks Korean well) 한국말을 잘하시는 것 같아요.. (ㅇ) I think someone speaks Korean very well.
13a) (after speaker heard someone speaks Korean well) 한국말을 잘하시나 봐요./는 듯해요/는 모양이에요. (X)
13b) (before speaker heard someone’s Korean, just assumes without a clue) 한국말을 잘하시나 봐요.

As you can see 5)-7), 는 것 같다 can be switched with other three. But, like 8) – 11), 는 것 같다 can’t be switched with others because those are speaker’s opinion. And like 13) 나 보다/는 듯하다/는 모양이다 can’t be used for a situation if you have a clue or an experience.

If you have any questions, please leave a reply to this post.

#는 것 같다 #나 보다 #은가 보다 #같다 #듯하다 #는 모양이다 #는 듯하다

verb+는 대로

verb+는 대로(present tense)
verb+(으)ㄴ 대로 (past tense)
noun+대로

-는 대로 has two different meanings. The first one is ‘as the same as’ and the second meaning is ‘as soon as’. For example,

A. as the same as
앵무새는 사람이 말하는 대로 따라할 수 있어요.
제가 하는 대로 따라하세요.
선생님꼐서 말씀하신 대로 했습니다.

B. as soon as (can’t be with past tense)
집에 가는 대로 전화하세요.
한국에 도착하는 대로 연락 드릴게요.
일을 끝내는 대로 집으로 바로 오세요.
** When we use -는 대로 as ‘as soon as’, we don’t use past tense at the end of the sentence. We use past tense with -자마자. -자마자 also means ‘as soon as’, but -자마자 can take all tenses. For example,

한국에 가자마자 병원에 갈 거예요.
집에 가자마자 샤워를 했어요.
밥을 먹자마자 밖에 나갔어요.
집에 가는 대로 샤워를 했어요. (X)

대로 as a particle, also has two different meanings. The first one is ‘as the same as the noun’, and the other one is ‘separately’

A. as the same as the noun
이 모양대로 그려 보세요. Please draw as the same as this shape.
친구의 말대로 거기에 가방이 있었어요. As my friend said, there was a bag.

B. separately (used as A은/는 A대로 form)
양말 양말대로, 옷대로 따로 넣어 주세요. Please put socks and clothes separately.
대로 좀 더 알아 볼 테니까 너도 인터넷을 좀 찾아 봐. I will look up more on my own, please look up on the Internet.

#는대로 #대로 #same #대로grammar #은대로 #말하는대로 #하는대로 #자마자vs는대로 #자마자 #는대로vs자마자 #자마자and는대로 #는대로 meaning #자마자 meaning

verb/adj든지/ -거나 / 든지 말든지/ 거나 말거나

verb/adj+든(지) / 거나
noun(이)든(지) / 거나

v/a+든지 말든지/거나 말거나

거나 expresses ‘choice’ or ‘either A or B’. For example,
일요일에 영화를 보거나 게임을 해요. I watch movies or play games on Sunday.
Q: 내일 뭐 할까요? / A: 차 마시거나 책 읽는 게 어때요?

든지 also means ‘or’ but it is used more like “It doesn’t matter if I choose A or B” or “I don’t care either A or B”. It usually comes with 상관없다 or 마음대로 하다, which mean ‘it doesn’t matter’ or ‘I don’t care’. It is often used as -든지 말든지 which means ‘whether do or not’. For example,

일이 없으면 저는 영화를 보든지 잠을 자든지 해요. If I don’t work, either I watch movies or sleep.
집에서 놀든지 밖에 나가든지 너 하고 싶은 대로 해. Do whatever you want do either playing at home or going out.
밥이(지) 빵이(지) 아무거나 주세요. Please give me anything, I don’t care if that is rice or bread.


든지 말든지(가거나 말거나) 상관없어요. I don’t care if you go or not. (=가든 말든)
든지 말든지(먹거나 말거나) 마음대로 하세요. Either eat or not, do whatever you want to do.
든지 말든지(하거나 말거나)…. whether do or not ( I don’t care)

As you can see above, sometimes we omit -지 and use it as -든 -든. And also we use ‘말다’ with 거나 or 든지 as –거나 말거나 / –든지 말든지, it means ‘it doesn’t matter whether a or not.’

Note
** Some Koreans say/write this as ‘-던지’ but ‘던지‘ is wrong.

And

#든지 #든 #던지 #a or b #either #든지 말든지 #거나 #거나 말거나

그래서 vs 그러니까

reason. 그러니까 result (suggestion/command)
reason. 그래서 result(suggestionX/commandX)

그러니까 and 그래서 both mean ‘therefore’ or ‘thus’, however they are very different. When we use 그래서, we cannot use suggestion and command sentence on a result sentence. If we want to suggest/command someone, we use 그러니까. For example,

비가 와요. 그래서 우산을 가지고 갈 거예요. It is raining, so I am going to take an umbrella.

비가 와요. 그러니까 우산을 가지고 가세요. It is raining, so please take an umbrella.
비가 와요. 그래서 우산을 가지고 가세요. (X)

Let’s look at more examples with -아어서 and -(으)니까 forms. If you haven’t learned these sentence endings, please click here -아/어서 and 으니까
1) -아/어/여서 can’t be used for suggesting, requesting or ordering, whereas -(으)니까 can.   For example,

  • 날씨가 좋아서 공원에 같이 가요. (X) => 날씨가 좋으니까 공원에 같이 가요. (O) : 같이 가요 => suggestion ; therefore you can’t use -아서
  • 비가 와서 우산을 가져 가세요. (X)  => 비가 오니까 우산을 가져 가세요. (O) : -(으)세요 is an imperative verb ending; therefore you can’t use -아서
    • verb endings for suggesting are ‘-는 게 어때요?’, -(으)ㄹ까요?, ‘-(으)ㅂ시다’, ‘-자’, ‘같이 -아/어/여요’ etc and verb endings for requesting or ordering are  ‘-(으)세요’, ‘-(으)십시오’ etc.

2) You can’t use the past tense in front of -아/어/여서, while you can put the past tense in front of -(으)니까.  For example,

  • 어제 공부 많이 했어서 피곤해요. (X)    => 어제 공부 많이 해서 피곤해요. (O)
  • 어제 제가 이 영화를 봤으니까 오늘은 다른 영화를 봅시다. (O)

3) often used for general statements or emotion verbs=> -아/어/여서. For example,

  • 만나서 반갑습니다.  Glad to meet you! ( I am happy because I meet you.)
    도와 주셔서 감사합니다.  Thanks for your help! (I appreciate because you helped me.)
  • 늦어서 죄송합니다.  Sorry for being late. ( I am sorry because I am late.)
  • 배가 아파서 학교에 안 갔어요. ( I didn’t go to school because my stomach hurt.)

#그러니까vs그래서 #그러니까그래서 #그러니까 #그래서 #아서니까 #아서vs니까 #그래서grammar #그러니까grammar