[Grammar] -고 and -아/어/여서 time order

  • -고

1) adjective/verb +   – ‘and’ :  Connect the same two sentences.

미나 씨는 예쁘고 친절해요. Mina is pretty and kind.
날씨가 춥고 눈이 많이 와요.  It is cold and it snows a lot.
민호 씨는 의사이고 민호 씨 아내는 선생님이에요.   Minho is a doctor and Minho’s wife is a teacher.

2) verb +고 – ‘and then’. Time order(the first action happens and then the second action). Two actions are not really related. 

보통 게임을 하고 잠을 자요.  I usually play game and then go to bed.
밥을 먹고 텔레비전을 봤어요.  I ate and then watched TV.
청소하고 설거지했어요.  I cleaned and then washed dishes.
음악을 듣고 영화를 볼 거예요.  I will listen to music and then watch a movie.
음식을 만들고 청소할 거예요. I will cook and then clean.
선물을 사고 집에 왔어요. I bought a gift and came home.
친구를 만나고 영화를 볼 거예요. I am going to meet my friend, and then I will watch a movie (not with the friend).

  • -아/어/여서

1) adjective/verb+아/어/여서 – It means ‘so(reason+result)’. Tenses should be on the second sentence. And you cannot use ‘suggestion’, ‘command’ or ‘requesting’ on the second sentence. If you learn more, click here to look at –으니까 and –아/어/여서.

일찍 일어나서 피곤해요.   I woke up early, so I am tired.
피곤해서 커피를 많이 마셨어요.   I was tired, so I drank a lot of coffee.
커피를 많이 마셔서 잠을 못 잤어요.  I drank a lot of coffee, I could not sleep.
잠을 못 자서 피곤해요.  I could not sleep well, I am tired.
피곤해서 일찍 집에 가세요. (X) => 피곤하니까 일찍 집에 가세요. (O)

2) verb+아/어/여서 – It means ‘While you maintain the first action, and then’ or ‘on that situation’, so ‘the first action must happens for the second sentence’. The first action is a premise for the second sentence and two actions are related. 

일찍 일어나서 운동했어요.  I get up early, (while I am up) and then exercise.
앉아서 이야기해도 돼요. You can sit down, (while you sit down) and then tell me.
누워서 텔레비전을 보지 마세요. Don’t lay down, (while you lay down) and then watch TV.
불고기를 만들어서 (불고기를) 먹었어요. I made Bulgogi, and then eat it.
학교에 가서 (학교에서) 공부했어요. I went to school, and then I study (there).
친구를 만나서 (친구하고) 영화를 봤어요. I met my friend, and then I watch a movie with her.
* 친구를 만나고 영화를 봤어요.  I met my friend, and then I watch a movie by myself.
선물을 사서 (그 선물을) 친구한테 줬어요.  I bought a gift, and then I gave it to my friend.
* 선물을 사고 친구를 만났어요. I bought a gift, and then I met my friend.

As a result,
-고 : two actions are seperated. 
-아/어/여서 : two actions are related. 

You can also listen to audio files on my quizlet.com page and ask questions on my facebook page.

[Grammar] 그리고 and -고

Both 그리고 and -고 mean ‘and’.  그리고 is used between two sentences, and ‘-고’ is attached to a verb stem or an adjective stem.  For example,

이 가방이 싸요. 그리고 예뻐요.
(This bag is cheap. And pretty.)
이 가방이 싸 예뻐요.
(This bag is cheap and pretty.)

형은 노래를 잘해요. 그리고 저는 운동을 잘해요.
(My older brother is good at singing. And I am good at sports.)
형은 노래를 잘하 저는 운동을 잘해요.
(My older brother is good at singing and I am good at sports.)

It can also mean ‘and then’ which is an order of two verbs.  For example,

점심을 먹었어요. 그리고 텔레비전을 봤어요.
(I ate lunch. And then I watched TV.)
점심을 먹 텔레비전을 봤어요.
(I ate lunch and then I watched TV.)

운동할 거예요. 그리고 책을 읽을 거예요.
(I will exercise. And then I will read a book.)
운동하 책을 읽을 거예요.
(I will exercise and then I will read a book.)

As you see in the second sentence, if you want to use a tense form, you can put the tense form on the second verb.  

In the second sentence, 운동하(다) is a verb and ‘-고‘ is a verb ending. It looks like the same as ‘-하고‘ which is a particle, however ‘-하고‘ is attached between two nouns.  For example,

컴퓨터하고 텔레비전이 비싸요.
(Computers and TVs are expensive.)
게임하고 저 게임을 안 좋아해요.
(I don’t like this game and that game.)

컴퓨터하 운동할 거예요.
(I will use the computer and I will work out.)
숙제하 커피를 마실 거예요.
(I will do homework and I will drink coffee.)

More sentences,

이 가방이 싸 좋아요.
우리 집이 크 예뻐요.
그 사람은 친절하 멋있어요.
겨울에 눈이 많이 오 추워요.
제 동생은 사과를 좋아하고 저는 배를 좋아해요.
저는 한국어를 공부하 제 동생은 영어를 공부해요.
방을 청소하 텔레비전 볼 거예요.
점심 먹 친구 집에 갔어요.
영화를 보 쇼핑했어요.
숙제를 하 잘 거예요.

You can listen to audio files here.