Korean Particles part 3

16. A처럼/같이 : like A, as A
백설공주는 눈처럼 하얀 피부를 가지고 있어요. Snow White has skin like snow.
같이 똑똑한 사람이 왜 시험에 떨어졌을까? How could the person who is smart like you fail the test?
마치 잠을 자는 것처럼 누워 있었어요. (A person) was lying down like (she/he) is sleeping.
* 같이 as an adverb, it means “together’.

17. A 만큼 / verb(adj) (으)ㄹ 만큼(=-(으)ㄹ 정도로) : as the similar degree as noun, as adjective/verb as A
아들이 아버지만큼 키가 컸다. The son is as tall as his father.
내가 너만큼 영어를 잘 할 수 있을까? Can I speak English as good as you?
계란이 익정도로(익만큼) 바깥 날씨가 더워요. Outside it is as hot as (a pan) cooking eggs .

18. -(으)로(서) : as/for a person/occupation
그는 선생님으로서 최선을 다했다. He did his best as a teacher.
그 사람은 사장으로서 자격이 없어요. That person is not qualified as a CEO.
의사로서 할일을 했을 뿐이에요. I just did my job as a doctor.

19. -(으)로써/ verb+(으)ㅁ으로써 with a tool, method, through, by
스트레스를 술로써 풉니다. I relieve my stress with drinking.
매일 운동을 으로써 건강을 지킬 수 있다. We can be healthy by working out every day.
사랑을 나눔으로써 아름다운 세상을 만들 수 있습니다. We can make a beautiful world by sharing our love.

20. -(으)로부터(=한테서, =에게서)
아버지로부터 편지가 왔습니다. I got a letter from my father.
성민은 회사로부터 해고 통지를 받았습니다. Sungmin got a notification of termination from the company.
친구한테서 온 전화를 못 받았어요. I couldn’t answer the phone call from my friend.

21. -에다가(=에다, =에)
a. adding
2에다가 3을 더하면 얼마예요?
월급에다가 보너스도 받아서 기분이 너무 좋아요.
b. target
여기에다가 편지 받으실 분의 주소를 써 주세요.
에다가 달력을 걸었어요.
c. tool, method
전자레인지에다가 데워 드세요.
찬물에다가 머리를 감았더니 추워요.

22. -(이)나
a. Chose A or B
콜라 주스를 주세요.
이번 여름에 중국이나 미국에 갈 거예요.
b. the choice that is not my favorite
쓸데없는 소리하지 말고 밥이나 먹어. Don’t say random thing, just eat. (The best choice will be you saying something valuable, but you don’t, so just eat. )
차나 한잔 할까요? Would you like to have tea? (Drinking tea is not the best choice, but it is okay, so I am suggesting)
c. 몇/며칠 +이나 : A question about ‘how many’. You can omit 이나, but it has softer nuance if you use it.
사람이 몇 명이나 왔어요? How many people came?
상하이를 여행하려면 며칠이나 걸려요? How long does it take to travel in Shanghai?
d. number+이나 : The number is more than I expected
어제 거기서 한 시간이나 기다렸어요. I waited for AN HOUR yesterday!!!!
비용이 백만 원이나 들어요? Wow, does it cost a million Won?
e. question word + 이나 : no matter, 누구나, 언제나, 어디서나, 무엇이나, 무슨+noun이나
들어올 수 있습니다. Anybody can come in.
그 사람은 어디서 노래를 불러요. He sings songs everywhere.

23. -(이)든지 : It doesn’t matter either one. Often with question words, it means ‘no matter’. (누구든지, 언제든지, 어디든지, 어디서든지, 무엇이든지, 뭐든지)
이든지이든지 아무거나 주세요. Either bread or rice, (I don’t care) please give me anything.
무엇이든지 물어보세요. You can ask me anything.
든지 열심히 하겠습니다. I will do my best to do any work.
이건 누구든지 할 수 있는 일이에요. This is a piece of work that anyone can do.
종수 씨가 가는 곳이면 어디든지 따라갈 거예요. I will follow Jong-su anywhere he goes.

24. -(이)라도 : The choice that is not my favorite.
밥이 없으면 라면이라도 주세요. If you don’t have rice, please give me some instant ramen.
A: 만원만 빌려 주세요. B: 만원이 없어요. A: 그럼 5천원이라도 빌려 주세요.
A: Please lend me 10,000Won. B: I don’t have 10,000Won. A: Then, please lend me 5,000Won.

25. -(이)나마 : similar to 이라도, but formal.
(Talk to a person who had a car accident. His car got towed but no one got hurt)
나마 다행이에요. You got lucky (not to get hurt)
A: 500,000원만 빌려 주세요. B: 500,000원은 없지만 10,000이나마 가지고 가시겠어요?

#이나마 #나마 #이라도 #라도 #누구나 #이나 #에다가 #으로부터 #한테서 #에게서 #으로써 #으로서 #만큼 #처럼 #정도로 #누구든지 #뭐든지 #어디든지 #든지 #이든지

Particle -(이)나


In this post, we are talking about (이)나, (이)나 is very common particle that comes on TOPIK. Let’s find out!

1. ‘choice’ , ‘A or B’.
주스를 주세요. Please give me tea or juice.
중국이나 미국에 갈 거예요. I am going to China or U.S.
경제학이나 경영학을 공부하고 싶어요. I want to study economics or business.

2. The previous noun is not the best choice or my favorite, but I still choose it.
밥은 없는데 그냥 이거 먹어. We don’t have rice, just eat this. (this is not the best choice, but I still give it to you.)
할 일도 없는데 영화 보지요. 뭐. I don’t have things to do, well, let’s watch a movie. (movie is not the best choice, but it is okay. )
밥이나 먹자. Let’s eat. (Eating is not my favorite thing to do now, but let’s do it.)

3. 이나 is attached 몇, 며칠, 얼마, it expresses “to ask/guess the number/amount” (Most cases you can omit 이나, because there is already a question word.)
사람이 몇 명이나 모였어요? How many people were there?
상하이를 여행하려면 며칠이나 걸려요? How many days does it take to travel Shanghai?
아이가 몇 살이나 됐어요? How old is the kid?

4. 이나 is attached to a number, it express that the number is more than the speaker expected.
어제 거기서 한 시간이나 기다렸어요. I waited for one hour over there yesterday. (one hour was very long time.)
비용이 백만 원이나 들어요? Does it cost one million Won? (one million Won is too much.)
** It is often compared with -밖에, please click here to learn the difference.

5. 이나 is attached to question words, 언제, 어디, 누구, 무엇, 아무, 아무 noun, it expresses ‘every’. We can translate as ‘—ever’
민수는 언제나 친절하게 사람을 대해요. Minsu always(whenever) treat people very friendly.
누구나(아무나) 들어올 수 있습니다. Anyone(Whoever) can come in.
무엇이나 물어보세요. Ask me anything(whatever).
공기는 어디에나 있어요. Air is everywhere(wherever).
아무 거나 다 잘 먹어요. I can eat any thing(whatever).

6. It doesn’t matter whether it is A or B.
지금이나 변한 게 별로 없네요. There is not much different before and now.
샌드위치 피자 다 괜찮아요. I am okay with sandwich or pizza, it doesn’t matter.

If you have any questions, please leave a comment in this post. 아무 질문이나 상관없어요! ^^

[Grammar] -(이)나 and -밖에

CYMERA_20130709_122812In this picture, 반 밖에 should be 반밖에. There is no space between 반 and 밖에.


-(이)나 and 밖에 both are particles. -() is used after a noun, it means ‘or’.  For example,

라면이나 우동을 시킬까요? Shall we order noodles or Udon?
초록색이나 빨간색을 입으세요. Please wear green or red.

Sometimes ‘이나’ is used after numbers/amount, it means  ‘the number is more than the speaker expected’. For example,

어제 술을 네 잔이나 마셨어요. I drank alcohol 4 glasses last night. (it means that she/he drank more than usual)
커피 값이 만 원이나 해요? Is a cup of coffee 10,000? (it is expensive)
커피를 하루에 다섯 잔이나 마셔요? Do you drink coffee 5 times a day? (you drink a lot)
세뱃돈을 5만원이나 받았어요. I got 50,000 Won at the New Year’s money. (it is more than I expected.)
집에 친구들이 20명이나 왔어요. 20 friends came to my home.(a lot of friends!)
오늘 공원에 차가 50대 있었어요. There were 50 cars at the park today. (a lot of cars!)
물이 반이나 남았어요. There is a half cup of water. (still a lot)



On the other hand, if you use -밖에 instead of -(이)나, it means totally opposite.  밖에 is used after noun, it means ‘only’.  When you use Noun+밖에, you have to use a negative word or expression with a verb/adjective.  For example,

오늘은 커피를 한 잔밖에 안 마셨어요. I only drank a cup of coffee. (=오늘은 커피를 한 잔만 마셨어요.)
파티에 선생님밖에 안 왔어요. Only my teacher came to the party. (파티에 선생님만 왔어요.)

Therefore, when 밖에 is used after numbers/amount, it means ‘only this amount of number’ which expresses unpleasant meaning.  For example,

A: 어제 술을 얼마나 마셨어요?

B: 조금밖에 마셨어요.

A: How much did you drink yesterday?

B : I only drank a little bit.

매달 월급을 백오십만 원밖에 받아요.  I only get 150,000 Won every month for salary.
일주일에 운동을 3시간밖에 해요.  I only work out 3 hours a week.
일 년에 한 번밖에 여행을 갈 수 없어요.  I only can go travel once a year.
돈이 조금밖에 없어서 비싼 음식을 먹을 수 없어요.  I only have a little bit of money, so I can’t eat expensive food.
이 요리는 아주 쉬워요. 5분밖에 걸려요. This food is easy to make. It only takes 5 minutes.
물이 반밖에 지 않았어요.  There is only a half cup of water.

You can listen to the pronunciation for those examples here.