Hangeul 8 – Final consonants

Hangeul 8-  7 Final consonants

In Korean

1) ㄴ ‘n’

2) ㅁ ‘m’

3) ㅇ ‘ng’

4) ㄹ ‘l’

5) ㄱ(ㄲ,ㅋ) ‘k’

: ㄱ, ㄲ, ㅋ are the same sound(ㄱ) when they are locate in an ending consonant.    e.g) 억 = 엌

6) ㅂ(ㅍ) ‘p’

: ㅂandㅍ are the same sound(ㅂ) when they are locate in an ending consonant.   e.g) 입 = 잎

7) ㄷ(ㅌ,ㅅ,ㅆ,ㅈ,ㅊ,ㅎ) ‘t’

:  ㄷ,ㅌ,ㅅ,ㅆ,ㅈ,ㅊ,ㅎ are the same sound(ㄷ) when they are locate in an ending consonant.    e.g) 읻 = 잍 = 잇 = 있 = 잊 = 잋 = 잏

If you have any question, please leave a reply.

[Grammar] -으니까 Because, reason

-(으)니까 Because~, therefore/so~

 

-(으)니까 means ‘because’ which expresses ‘reason’.  Let’s see the conjugation.

When a verb stem ends with a consonant + 으니까
When a verb stem ends with a vowel + 니까

For example,

날씨가 으니까 공원에 같이 가요.
The weather is nice, (so) let’s go to the park.
비가 니까 우산을 가져 가세요.
It is raining, (so) you should bring an umbrella.

  • In formal sentences, we often omit 까 and just say -(으)니.

It is often compared ‘-아/어/여서’(click here), the difference between ‘-아/어/여서’ and ‘-(으)니까’ is

1) -아/어/여서 can’t be used for suggesting, requesting or ordering, whereas -(으)니까 can.   For example,

  • 날씨가 좋아서 공원에 같이 가요. (X) => 날씨가 좋으니까 공원에 같이 가요. (O)
    같이 가요 => suggestion ; therefore you can’t use -아서
  • 비가 와서 우산을 가져 가세요. (X)  => 비가 오니까 우산을 가져 가세요. (O)
    -(으)세요 is an imperative verb ending; therefore you can’t use -아서
    • verb endings for suggesting are ‘-는 게 어때요?‘, -(으)ㄹ까요?, ‘-(으)ㅂ시다‘, ‘-자‘, ‘같이 -아/어/여요‘ etc and verb endings for requesting or ordering are  ‘-(으)세요‘, ‘-(으)십시오‘ etc.

 

2) You can’t use the past tense in front of -아/어/여서, while you can put the past tense in front of -(으)니까.  For example,

  • 어제 공부 많이 했어서 피곤해요. (X)    => 어제 공부 많이 해서 피곤해요. (O)
  • 어제 제가 이 영화를 봤으니까 오늘은 다른 영화를 봅시다. (O)

 

 

3) often used for general statements or emotion verbs=> -아/어/여서. For example,

  • 만나서 반갑습니다.  Glad to meet you! ( I am happy because I meet you.)
  • 도와 주셔서 감사합니다.  Thanks for your help! (I appreciate because you helped me.)
  • 늦어서 죄송합니다.  Sorry for being late. ( I am sorry because I am late.)
  • 배가 아파서 학교에 안 갔어요. ( I didn’t go to school because my stomach hurt.)

 

Sentences>>

여기 좀 시끄러우니까 다른 데로 가는 게 어때요?
It is loud here, how about going to another place?
민수 씨, 술을 많이 마셨으니까 운전 하지 마세요.
Minsu, You drank a lot, don’t drive!
여기는 도서관이니까 조용히 해야 돼요.
Because we are at the library, we should be quite.
제가 아직 집에 있으니까 조금만 기다려 주세요.
I am still at home, please wait for me a little bit more.
저도 아침을 안 먹었으니까 같이 밥 먹으러 가요.
I haven’t had breakfast yet, let’s go eat.
오늘은 제가 좀 피곤하니까 내일 갈까요?
I am a little bit tired today, can we go tomorrow?
이 우유는 상했으니까 먹지 마세요.
This milk has gone bad, don’t drink it!

You can listen to audio pronunciation on my Quizlet.com. (Click here) 

 If you want to learn more about -(으)니까, please click here.

[Grammar] -아/어/여서 ‘Because’, reasons

-아/어/여서 Because

 

-아/어/여서 means ‘because’ in English, it takes place after a verb or an adjective.  The conjugation is

1. When a verb/adjective stem ends with ‘아/오’ vowel  + 아서

i.e) – 비가 오(다) => 오(ㅗ vowel) +아서

– 잠을 못 자(다) => 자(ㅏ vowel) + 아서

2. When a verb/adjective stem ends with other vowels besides ‘아/오’ + 어서

– 밥을 안 먹(다) => 먹(ㅓ vowel) + 어서

– 술을 마시(다) => 마시(ㅣ vowel) + 어서

– 아직 안 배우(다) => 배우(ㅜ vowel) + 어서

3. When a verb or an adjective stem ends with ‘하’  + 여서 => 하여 =>

– 공부를 안 하(다) + 여서 => 공부를 안 해서

– 피곤하(다) + 여서 => 피곤해서

 

비가 와서 날씨가 시원해요.
Because it rains, it is cool.
어제 잠을 못 자서 피곤해요.
Because I didn’t sleep well yesterday, I am tired.
밥을 안 먹어서 배가 고파요.
Because I haven’t had a meal, I am hungry.
어제 술을 많이 마셔서 머리가 아파요.
Because I drank a lot yesterday, I have a headache.
아직 안 배워서 몰라요.
Because I haven’t learned yet, I don’t know.
공부를 안 해서 시험을 못 봤어요.
Because I didn’t study, I didn’t do well on my exam.
어제 피곤해서 잠을 많이 잤어요.
Because I was tired, I slept a lot.

You can listen to the pronunciation on my Quizlet.com (Click here).

 

As you can see on those sentences, you can’t add the tense in front of -아/어/여서 even though the event happened in the past.  If you want to express the tense, you can add the tense verb ending at the end of the sentence.

 

One more thing, you can’t use a suggestion sentence or an imperative sentence with -아/어/여서. For example,

 

Because the weather is nice, let’s go for a walk.  날씨가 좋아서 같이 산책해요.(X)
Because it rains, don’t go outside. 비가 와서 밖에 나가지 마세요.(X)
Because the tickets are sold out, can we see it tomorrow?  오늘 표가 없어서 내일 볼까요?(X)

 

If you want to use a suggestion or an imperative sentence, you should use -(으)니까.

Because the weather is nice, let’s go for a walk.  날씨가 좋으니까 같이 산책해요. (O)
Because it rains, don’t go outside. 비가 오니까 밖에 나가지 마세요.(O)
Because the tickets are sold out, can we see it tomorrow?   오늘 표가 없으니까 내일 볼까요?(O)

 

I will post more about -(으)니까 in the later post.

 

[Grammar] 이/가 vs 은/는 : Subject particle vs topic particle

We have learned Korean particles in the previous post(click).  This post is about subject particles and topic particles. The subject particles are  이 and 가, the topic particles are 은 and 는

Noun(ends with a consonant) + 이 

Noun(ends with a vowel) +

 

For example,

뭐예요?.  What is your name?
며칠이에요? What date is today?
예뻐요. The baby is pretty.

And many people are confused the subject particle with the topic particle -은/는.

-은 and 는 are not subject particle. 

-은/는 can substitute -이/가(subject particle) and -을/를(object particle), which means you CAN’T use the topic particle and the subject/object particle for one noun.  We should use either topic particle or subject/object particle.

Noun(ends with a consonant) +

Noun(ends with a vowel) +

 

For beginners, we just need to know -은/는 are used for

1. when you introduce a noun

For example,

이민수예요.  I am Lee Minsu.
한국 사람이에요. I am Korean.
28살이에요. I am 28 years old.
우리 한국어 선생님 남자예요. My Korean teacher is a male.

2. when you compare two nouns

For example,

민수 씨는 사과를 좋아해요. 그런데 유진 씨는 사과를 안 좋아해요.
(Minsu likes apples, but Yujin doesn’t like apples)
– 민수 씨 and 유진 씨 are subjects.
* 민수 씨가는(X), 유진 씨가는(X)

민수 씨가 사과는 좋아해요. 그런데 (민수 씨가) 바나나는 안 좋아해요.
(Minsu likes apples, but he doesn’t like bananas.)
– 사과 and 바나나 are objects. 
* 사과를은(X), 바나나를은(X)

3. When you ask about new information, it is safe to use -이/가 and when you answer the question, you should -은/는

For example,

A: 이름이 뭐예요? What is your name?
B: 제 이름은 이민수예요. My name is Lee Minsu.

A: 오늘이 며칠이에요? What date is today?
B: 오늘은 8월 7일이에요. Today is August 7.

A: 이 분이 누구예요? Who is this person?
B: (이 분은) 제 어머니예요.  (This person is) My mother.

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

 

[Grammar] -습니다 Formal verb ending

-습니다 Formal verb ending

-(스)ㅂ니다 is a formal verb/adjective ending.  We’ve learned the friendly/polite verb ending -아/어/여요 in the previous post, whereas -(스)ㅂ니다 is a formal/polite verb ending.  We will hear and see this verb ending a lot on TV news or on newspaper.

The present tense is -(스)ㅂ니다.  The form of (스)ㅂ니다 depends on whether a verb/adjective stem ends with a consonant or a vowel.

Verb/adjective(ends with a consonant) + 습니다
Verb/adjective(ends with a vowel) + ㅂ니다

For example,

Verb/adjective(ends with a consonant)+습니다
(다)+습니다
먹습니다
(다)+습니다
읽습니다
(다) +습니다
좋습니다
Verb/adjective(ends with a vowel)+ㅂ니다
(다) + ㅂ니다
갑니다
(다) + ㅂ니다
옵니다
(다)+ㅂ니다
예쁩니다

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

 

The past tense of -습니다 is -았/었/였습니다.  The form of -았/었/였습니다 depends on a vowel of a verb/adjective’s stem.

Verb/adjective
-았/었/였습니다
Output
아/오 vowel
가(다)
가+았습니다
갔습니다
오(다)
오+았습니다
왔습니다
좋(다)
좋+았습니다
좋았습니다
other than
아/오 vowel
만들(다)
만들+었습니다
만들었습니다
먹(다)
먹+었습니다
먹었습니다
흐리(다)
흐리+었습니다
흐렸습니다
하(다)
공부하(다)
공부하+였습니다 (하+여=해)
공부했습니다
일하(다)
일하+였습니다(하+여=해)
일했습니다
피곤하(다)
피곤하+였습니다(하+여=해)
피곤했습니다

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

 

The future tense of -습니다 is -(으)ㄹ 겁니다.  The form of -ㄹ 겁니다 depends on whether a verb/adjective stem ends with a consonant or a vowel.

Verb/adjective(ends with a consonant)+을 겁니다
(다)+을 겁니다
먹을 겁니다
(다)+을 겁니다
읽을 겁니다
(다) +을 겁니다
좋을 겁니다
Verb/adjective(ends with a vowel)+ㄹ 겁니다
(다) + ㄹ 겁니다
갈 겁니다
(다) +ㄹ 겁니다
마실 겁니다
공부(다)+ㄹ 겁니다
공부할 겁니다

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

 

 

* -입니다 is the formal version of -이에요/예요.

Noun+입니다

학생입니다
선생님입니다
동생입니다
아버지입니다
의사입니다
컴퓨터입니다

 

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

Korean Holidays

2016 holidays in Korea

 

Koreans still use Sun calendar and Lunar calendar. Most Korean holidays are on the Sun calendar, however we(Koreans) still celebrate the two biggest holidays(Seollal and Chuseok) with the Lunar calendar.  Because these days are a day off or a few days off at work and school, so we call them ‘공휴일(day off)’ and ‘연휴(a few days off)’.

Here are a list of holidays and what we do on those days.

1/1 설날 (양력설  New year’s day on the Solar calendar) – We eat 떡국(rice cake soup) and celebrate a new year.

2/7~2/10설날(음력설 New year’s day on the Lunar calendar) – It is the biggest holiday!!! It is January 1st on the Lunar calendar, so the date changes every year on the Solar calendar. People go to their hometown and meet their parents and families on this day. A day before 설날, we get together to prepare food for the early morning ceremony on 설날, which is for our ancestors. We eat 떡국(rice cake soup) after the ceremony and we play traditional games like 윷놀이(four sticks). For more information about 설날, click here.

3/1  삼일절 (Independent movement day) – It occurred on March 1st in 1919 during the Japanese colonial occupation period. On this day, there are lots of places have reenactment performances. You can learn more about 삼일절 through this website.

5/5 어린이날 (Children’s day) – Kids love it, parents hate it. 🙂 A lot of people go to amusement parks or go on a picnic on this day.

5/14 석가탄신일 (Buddha’s birthday) – It is April 8th on the Lunar calendar, so the date changes every year. Buddhism is one of the biggest religions in Korea. Buddhists go to a temple to celebrate Buddha’s birthday.

6/6 현충일 (Memorial day) – It is the day to commemorate people who fought for Korea. The government holds a ceremony at the National Cemetery in Seoul.

8/15 광복절 (Independence day) – It is the day that we found our freedom back from Japanese colonial rule.

9/14~9/16 추석(Chuseok, Full moon holiday) – It is August 15th on the Lunar calendar, so the date changes every year. Chuseok is the second biggest holiday for Koreans. We go to our parents house to celebrate it and eat a lot of food. The day before Chuseok, families get together to prepare food for a morning ceremony on Chuseok. Food for Chuseok, 송편(pine tree flavor rice cake) is the most famous food for this day.

10/3 개천절 (National Foundation Day) – National Foundation day is celebrating for the day that Dan-goon Jo-seon is established for 4348 years ago.

10/9 한글날 (Hangeul Day) – It is the day to celebrate Hangeul that was created by Sejong the Great in 1443.

12/25 크리스마스 (Christmas) – A lot of people celebrate Christmas even though they are not Christians. Koreans somehow celebrate it as Valentine’s day, so a lot of couples eat out on this day. Some restaurants change their prices twice as much as original prices. Streets are full of people who hang out with their friends. It is fun, but I don’t recommend you to go to a busy street because there are lots of people who are drunk.

 

Some holidays are not a day off, but very important for us, which are

5/8 어버이 날 (Parents day) – It is the day to appreciate our parents. On this day, we send carnations and gifts to our parents or eat a nice meal with them.

5/15 스승의 날 (Teacher’s day) – We express appreciation to our teachers on this day by sending cards and gifts to our teachers. 스승 is formal word for teacher.

 

* 설날 Seollal (lunar calendar), 추석(Chuseok) and 석가탄신일(Buddha’s birthday) change every year because it is on the lunar calendar.

 

* My favorite holiday is Seollal and Chooseok because there are lots of food and we can take three days off to see our family and friends!

 

[Voca] 하고 vs 그리고 : and

-하고 vs 그리고 : and

 

-하고 and 그리고 both mean ‘and’ in Korean, however -하고 occurs between two nouns and 그리고 takes place between two sentences. Here are few examples that you can practice.

 

  •  Noun+하고 : ‘and(between nouns)’, ‘with someone’

e.g)

가방하고 티셔츠를 샀어요.
I bought a bag and a T shirt.
김밥하고 불고기(를) 주세요.
Please give me Kimbap and Bulgogi.
친구하고 같이 영화를 봐요.
I am watching a movie with my friend.
하고 같이 살아요.
I live with my brother.

 

* -와/과 is the same as ‘-하고’, but -와/과 is the formal way.  Thus, when you write something or have a meeting, you should use -와/과 instead of -하고.

Noun(consonant) + 과
Noun(vowel) + 와

 

* -(이)랑 is also the same as ‘-하고’, however this is used in a very informal conversation such as friends or family.  You shouldn’t use this in a formal conversation.

Noun(consonant) + 이랑
Noun(vowel) + 랑

 

  • 그리고 : ‘and(between sentences)’, ‘and then’

e.g)

이 가방은 참 예뻐요. 그리고 가벼워요.
This bag is very pretty, and it is light.
저는 사과를 좋아해요. 그리고 배도 좋아해요.
I like apples, and I also like pears.
도서관에 가요. 그리고 친구를 만나요.
I am going to the library, and then I will meet my friend.
친구를 만날 거예요. 그리고 같이 영화 볼 거예요.
I am going to meet my friend, and then we will watch a movie together.

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

[Expression] 무슨 요일이에요? What day is it?

오늘무슨 요일이에요?
What day is it today?

 

A : 오늘이 무슨 요일이에요?  What day is it today?

B: 월요일이에요. It is Monday.

 

Tip>> You don’t need to repeat ‘오늘(today)’ because it is repeated. We don’t normally say the subject that is repeated.

 

Vocabulary>>

오늘 : today

무슨 : what kind of

요일 : day

무슨 요일 : what day, which day of the week

이에요? : is

월요일[워료일] : Monday

화요일 : Tuesday

수요일 : Wednesday

목요일[모교일] : Thursday

금요일[그묘일] : Friday

토요일 : Saturday

일요일[이료일] : Sunday

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

[Grammar] -에서 Place particle

-에서 Place particle

 

We have learned the place particle -에 on the previous post(click), -에 is a place particle which means ‘existence(-에 있어요/없어요)’ or ‘direction(-에 가요/와요)’.

-에서 is also a place particle, but this is for an action, such as “I work at home”, “I study at the library” or “I eat lunch at a restaurant”.  In those sentences, ‘work’, ‘study’ and ‘eat’ have actions, you “do” something.  Let’s look at sentences below.

에서 텔레비전을 봐요.(보다:watch) I am watching TV at home.
학교에서 공부해요.(공부하다:study) I am studying at my school.
회사에서 일해요.(일하다:work) I am working at my company.
도서관에서 책을 읽어요.(읽다:read) I am reading books at the library.
커피숍에서 친구를 만나요.(만나다:meet) I am meeting my friend at the coffee shop.
극장에서 영화를 봐요.(보다:watch) I am watching a movie at the theater.
백화점에서 신발을 사요.(사다:buy) I am buying shoes at the department store.
친구 집에서 컴퓨터 게임해요.(게임하다:play a game) I am playing a computer game at my friend’s home.

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

* Here is the difference between 에 and 에서. -에 is used for existence(있어요/없어요/살아요) and destination(가요/와요/다녀요), while 에서 is used for action verbs.

 

* 에서 also means ‘from a place’, check this out by clicking here.

[Grammar] Direction particle -으로/로

I put a post about ‘-(으)로’ which means ‘method’, ‘means’ or ‘way’ in the previous post(click).   -(으)로 also is used for indicating a direction, it can be translated ‘to’ or ‘toward’ in English.

Form>

 Nouns(consonants ending)
으로
앞으로, 옆으로, 집으로, 시청으로, 부산으로
 Nouns(vowel or ㄹ ending)
위로, 아래로, 뒤로, 출구로, 서울로,

e.g)

consonant ending
으로 가세요.
Go forward.
왼쪽으로 도세요.(돌다: turn)
Turn left.
이 버스(가) 시청으로 가요?
Is this bus going to(toward) the City Hall?
으로 가고 있어요.
I am on my way home.
위층으로 올라 가세요.
Go upstairs.
vowel or ㄹending
아래 내려 가세요.
Go down.
넘어졌어요.
Fell down on my back.
4번 출구 나오세요.
Come out from(toward) Exit 4.
이 기차가 서울로 가요?
Is this train going to Seoul?

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

-(으)로 is very similar to the destination particle ‘-에’, but the difference is that ‘-으로’ emphasizes “direction/headed” and ‘-에’ focuses on ‘destination’.  For example,

집으로 가고 있어요. means “I am heading for home”; it might not mean ‘the destination is home’. 집에 가고 있어요. means “I am going home”; the destination is home.  So “집에 가서 쉬세요(go home take a rest)” is correct, but “집으로 가서 쉬세요” is weird.  Also, You can say “서울에 도착했어요(arrive in Seoul) , but you can’t say “서울로 도착했어요“.

 

Verbs only with -(으), not -에
Verbs only with -에, not -(으)로
-(으)로 떠나다 : leave for
-(으)로 이사가다/오다 : move to
-(으)로 출발하다 : depart for
-에 도착하다 : arrive at/in