[Grammar] Direction particle -으로/로

I put a post about ‘-(으)로’ which means ‘method’, ‘means’ or ‘way’ in the previous post(click).   -(으)로 also is used for indicating a direction, it can be translated ‘to’ or ‘toward’ in English.

Form>

 Nouns(consonants ending)
으로
앞으로, 옆으로, 집으로, 시청으로, 부산으로
 Nouns(vowel or ㄹ ending)
위로, 아래로, 뒤로, 출구로, 서울로,

e.g)

consonant ending
으로 가세요.
Go forward.
왼쪽으로 도세요.(돌다: turn)
Turn left.
이 버스(가) 시청으로 가요?
Is this bus going to(toward) the City Hall?
으로 가고 있어요.
I am on my way home.
위층으로 올라 가세요.
Go upstairs.
vowel or ㄹending
아래 내려 가세요.
Go down.
넘어졌어요.
Fell down on my back.
4번 출구 나오세요.
Come out from(toward) Exit 4.
이 기차가 서울로 가요?
Is this train going to Seoul?

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

-(으)로 is very similar to the destination particle ‘-에’, but the difference is that ‘-으로’ emphasizes “direction/headed” and ‘-에’ focuses on ‘destination’.  For example,

집으로 가고 있어요. means “I am heading for home”; it might not mean ‘the destination is home’. 집에 가고 있어요. means “I am going home”; the destination is home.  So “집에 가서 쉬세요(go home take a rest)” is correct, but “집으로 가서 쉬세요” is weird.  Also, You can say “서울에 도착했어요(arrive in Seoul) , but you can’t say “서울로 도착했어요“.

 

Verbs only with -(으), not -에
Verbs only with -에, not -(으)로
-(으)로 떠나다 : leave for
-(으)로 이사가다/오다 : move to
-(으)로 출발하다 : depart for
-에 도착하다 : arrive at/in

 

 

[Grammar] Means, way particle -으로/로

Means, way, method particle -으로/로

-(으)로 is a noun particle which means ‘means’, ‘way’ or ‘method’, it can be translated ‘by’ or ‘with’ in English.  You can use this for transportation, a tool, a way that you use.

Form>

 Nouns(consonants ending)
으로
손으로, 핸드폰으로, 인터넷으로,
 Nouns(vowel or ㄹ ending)
차로, 자전거로, 기차로, 지하철로, 이메일로

e.g)

consonants ending
으로 먹어요.
Eat with hands.
으로 만들었어요.
Made this with flowers.
인터넷으로 찾았어요.
Found this on the Internet. (method)
vowel or
ㄹ ending
자전거 가요.
Go by bicycle.
기차 가요.
Go by train.
지하철로 가요.
Go by subway.
이메일로 보내요.
Send it via Email.

When you say ‘go by foot’, we don’t use this particle. ‘Go by foot’ in Korean is ‘걸어서 가요’, ‘come by foot’ is ‘걸어서 와요.’

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

[Grammar] 왜? Question words

Question words for Beginners

Untitled-1

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

어느
which
어느 나라 사람이에요?
Where are you from?
어느 학교 다녀요?
Which school are you attending?
누구
whom, whose
누구 거예요?
Whose thing is it?
누가
who(subject)
누가 안 왔어요?
Who didn’t come?
what
뭐 해요?
What are you doing?
무엇
formal word of ‘뭐’
무엇을 합니까?
What are you doing?
무슨+ N
what kind of N
무슨 음식을 좋아해요?
What food do you like?
무슨 책을 읽어요?
What book do you read?
why
왜 안 왔어요?
Why didn’t you come?
전화 왜 안 받아요?
Why didn’t you answer my phone?
어디
where
어디에 가요?
Where are you going?
어디에서 왔어요?
Where are you (coming) from?
언제
when
언제 한국에 왔어요?
When did you come to Korea?
언제 집에 와요?
When are you coming home?
어떻게
how
부산에 어떻게 가요?
How do I get to Busan.
이거 어떻게 해요?
How do I do this?
how many, what
몇 개예요?
How many is this?
몇 월이에요?
What month is it?
며칠
what date, how many days
오늘 며칠이에요?
What date is today?
며칠 동안 여행해요?
How many days are you going to travel?

 

A lot of Koreans write ‘며칠’ as ‘몇일’, but ‘몇일’ is wrong.  If you see anyone(Korean) write it wrong, please correct them!

[Grammar] -에 particle

-에 is a particle that has many meanings. (It has 16 different meanings!!) In this post, I am going to explain three main uses.

1. Place (existence) : -에 often with 있어요/없어요 and 살아요, it means something/someone is at/on/in a place.
선생님이 학교에 있어요.  The teacher is at the school.
민수 씨가 도서관에 있어요.  Minsu is at the library.
동생이 집에 있어요.  My younger sister(brother) is at home.
오빠가 집에 없어요.  My older brother is not at home.

2. Place (destination) : -에 often with 가요(go)/와요(come)/다녀요(attend), it indicates a destination.
저는 지금 집에 가요. I am going home.
화장실에 가요. I am going to the restroom.
어디에 가요? Where are you going?
미나 씨가 도서관에 가요. Mina is going to the library.
언제 한국에 와요? When are you coming to Korea?
저는 A대학교에 다녀요. I am attending at A University.

3. Time : -에 also means verb/adjective happens at/in/on the time.
내년 한국 가요. I am going to Korea next year.
월요일 친구 집 가요. I am going to my friend’s house on Monday.
아침 학교 있어요. I am at school in the morning.
9시 아침 먹어요. I eat the breakfast at 9 o’clock.
As you can see, you can use two 에 in one sentence which are different meanings.

You should add 에 after most time nouns, but some time nouns don’t need 에 such as 오늘, 어제, 내일, 매일/매주/매달/매년, 언제, 지금.
오늘 백화점에 가요.  I am going to a department store today.
매일 공부해요. I study every day.
지금 뭐 해요? What are you doing now?

And if there are more than two time nouns, you can just add 에 for the last time noun. For example,
오늘 오후 영화를 봐요. I am going to watch a movie this afternoon.
이번 주 월요일 시간이 없어요. I don’t have time this Monday.
다음 주 금요일 4시 만나요. Let’s meet at 4 next Friday.
내년 9월 10일 5시 결혼해요. I am going to get married at 5 o’clock on September 10th next year.

  • Many students get confused by -에(place) and -에서(place), if you want to learn more about this please click here.

[Grammar] Sports 운동

photo

무슨 운동을 좋아해요? What is your favorite sport? Mine is 야구(baseball). Practice these and tell me about your favorite sport! Let’s go A’s!!!!!

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

Noun
Verb
English
농구
하다
basketball
축구
하다
soccer
야구
하다
baseball
배구
하다
volleyball
수영
하다
swimming
테니스
치다
tennis
탁구
치다
table tennis
배드민턴
치다
badminton
볼링
치다
bowling
태권도
하다
Taekwondo
유도
하다
Judo
스키
타다
ski
스노우보드
타다
snowboard

[Expression] Travel 여행

When you go to Korea, you need to say these a lot! Practice a lot before you go to Korea!

And if you have a question, reply to this post.

저……
Uh…..
실례합니다.
Excuse me.
저는 한국말을 몰라요.
I don’t speak Korean.
영어할 줄 알아요?
Do you speak English?
여기 어떻게 가요?
How do I get this place?
공항에 어떻게 가요?
How do I get to the airport?
화장실이 어디에 있어요?
Where is the bathroom?
다시 한번 말해 주세요.
Can you repeat one more time?
천천히 말해 주세요.
Can you speak slowly?
얼마예요?
How much is it?
이거 주세요.
I will take this. Please give me this.
여기 있어요.
 Here it is.
어디에 가세요?
Where are you going?
공항에 가요.
I am going to the airport
도와 주세요.
Please help me.
알려 주세요.
Please tell me. Please let me know.

You can listen to the pronunciation here.

[Voca] Family 가족

family

For beginners, you will be asked about your family a lot.

“Where do they live?” “Do you have siblings?”.

How do you say it in Korean?

가족이 지금 어디에 살아요?
Where does your family live now?
제 가족은 서울에 살아요.
My family lives in Seoul.
형제 (자매)가 있어요?
Do you have siblings?
형제 (자매)가 몇 명이에요?
How many siblings do you have?
오빠가 한 명 있어요.
I have an older brother (for a woman).
이 두 명 있어요.
I have two older brothers (for a man).
언니가 한 명 있어요.
I have an older sister (for a woman).
누나가 두 명 있어요.
I have two older sisters (for a man).
남동생이 한 명 있어요.
I have a younger brother (for both).
여동생이 한 명 있어요.
I have a younger sister (for both).
혼자예요.
I am an only child.
저는 형제 (자매)가 없어요.
I don’t have siblings.
조카
niece and nephew
할아버지
grand father
할머니
grand mother
부모님
parents
아버지/ 아빠
father/dad
어머니/ 엄마
mother/mom

 

You can also listen to the pronunciation here :

http://quizlet.com/45114436/family-flash-cards/