Hangeul 6 – Consonants (Aspirated, Strong air)

Hangeul 6 – Consonants (Aspirated, Strong air)

These four consonants are similar to the consonants that we have learned in Hangeul 4 – Consonants(Relax, less air), however these have a lot of air when you make sounds.

15) ㅋ ‘k’

With the video, you can practice ‘카, 커, 코, 쿠, 크, 키, 케, 캐’

 

16) ㅌ ‘t’


With the video, you can practice ‘타, 터, 토, 투, 트, 티, 테, 태’

17) ㅍ ‘p’


With the video, you can practice ‘파, 퍼, 포, 푸, 프, 피, 페, 패’

18) ㅊ ‘ch’


With the video, you can practice ‘차, 처, 초, 추, 츠, 치, 체, 채’

Vocabulary flash cards for ‘ㅋ’ ‘ㅌ’ ‘ㅍ’ ‘ㅊ’ -> http://quizlet.com/28340673/hangul4-flash-cards/

You can practice these sounds with the consonants(relax and less air) with these videos below.
* ‘ㄱ’ and ‘ㅋ’

* ‘ㄷ’ and ‘ㅌ’

* ‘ㅂ’ and ‘ㅍ’

* ‘ㅈ’ and ‘ㅊ’

Korean Holidays

2016 holidays in Korea

 

Koreans still use Sun calendar and Lunar calendar. Most Korean holidays are on the Sun calendar, however we(Koreans) still celebrate the two biggest holidays(Seollal and Chuseok) with the Lunar calendar.  Because these days are a day off or a few days off at work and school, so we call them ‘공휴일(day off)’ and ‘연휴(a few days off)’.

Here are a list of holidays and what we do on those days.

1/1 설날 (양력설  New year’s day on the Solar calendar) – We eat 떡국(rice cake soup) and celebrate a new year.

2/7~2/10설날(음력설 New year’s day on the Lunar calendar) – It is the biggest holiday!!! It is January 1st on the Lunar calendar, so the date changes every year on the Solar calendar. People go to their hometown and meet their parents and families on this day. A day before 설날, we get together to prepare food for the early morning ceremony on 설날, which is for our ancestors. We eat 떡국(rice cake soup) after the ceremony and we play traditional games like 윷놀이(four sticks). For more information about 설날, click here.

3/1  삼일절 (Independent movement day) – It occurred on March 1st in 1919 during the Japanese colonial occupation period. On this day, there are lots of places have reenactment performances. You can learn more about 삼일절 through this website.

5/5 어린이날 (Children’s day) – Kids love it, parents hate it. 🙂 A lot of people go to amusement parks or go on a picnic on this day.

5/14 석가탄신일 (Buddha’s birthday) – It is April 8th on the Lunar calendar, so the date changes every year. Buddhism is one of the biggest religions in Korea. Buddhists go to a temple to celebrate Buddha’s birthday.

6/6 현충일 (Memorial day) – It is the day to commemorate people who fought for Korea. The government holds a ceremony at the National Cemetery in Seoul.

8/15 광복절 (Independence day) – It is the day that we found our freedom back from Japanese colonial rule.

9/14~9/16 추석(Chuseok, Full moon holiday) – It is August 15th on the Lunar calendar, so the date changes every year. Chuseok is the second biggest holiday for Koreans. We go to our parents house to celebrate it and eat a lot of food. The day before Chuseok, families get together to prepare food for a morning ceremony on Chuseok. Food for Chuseok, 송편(pine tree flavor rice cake) is the most famous food for this day.

10/3 개천절 (National Foundation Day) – National Foundation day is celebrating for the day that Dan-goon Jo-seon is established for 4348 years ago.

10/9 한글날 (Hangeul Day) – It is the day to celebrate Hangeul that was created by Sejong the Great in 1443.

12/25 크리스마스 (Christmas) – A lot of people celebrate Christmas even though they are not Christians. Koreans somehow celebrate it as Valentine’s day, so a lot of couples eat out on this day. Some restaurants change their prices twice as much as original prices. Streets are full of people who hang out with their friends. It is fun, but I don’t recommend you to go to a busy street because there are lots of people who are drunk.

 

Some holidays are not a day off, but very important for us, which are

5/8 어버이 날 (Parents day) – It is the day to appreciate our parents. On this day, we send carnations and gifts to our parents or eat a nice meal with them.

5/15 스승의 날 (Teacher’s day) – We express appreciation to our teachers on this day by sending cards and gifts to our teachers. 스승 is formal word for teacher.

 

* 설날 Seollal (lunar calendar), 추석(Chuseok) and 석가탄신일(Buddha’s birthday) change every year because it is on the lunar calendar.

 

* My favorite holiday is Seollal and Chooseok because there are lots of food and we can take three days off to see our family and friends!

 

[Voca] 하고 vs 그리고 : and

-하고 vs 그리고 : and

 

-하고 and 그리고 both mean ‘and’ in Korean, however -하고 occurs between two nouns and 그리고 takes place between two sentences. Here are few examples that you can practice.

 

  •  Noun+하고 : ‘and(between nouns)’, ‘with someone’

e.g)

가방하고 티셔츠를 샀어요.
I bought a bag and a T shirt.
김밥하고 불고기(를) 주세요.
Please give me Kimbap and Bulgogi.
친구하고 같이 영화를 봐요.
I am watching a movie with my friend.
하고 같이 살아요.
I live with my brother.

 

* -와/과 is the same as ‘-하고’, but -와/과 is the formal way.  Thus, when you write something or have a meeting, you should use -와/과 instead of -하고.

Noun(consonant) + 과
Noun(vowel) + 와

 

* -(이)랑 is also the same as ‘-하고’, however this is used in a very informal conversation such as friends or family.  You shouldn’t use this in a formal conversation.

Noun(consonant) + 이랑
Noun(vowel) + 랑

 

  • 그리고 : ‘and(between sentences)’, ‘and then’

e.g)

이 가방은 참 예뻐요. 그리고 가벼워요.
This bag is very pretty, and it is light.
저는 사과를 좋아해요. 그리고 배도 좋아해요.
I like apples, and I also like pears.
도서관에 가요. 그리고 친구를 만나요.
I am going to the library, and then I will meet my friend.
친구를 만날 거예요. 그리고 같이 영화 볼 거예요.
I am going to meet my friend, and then we will watch a movie together.

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

[Grammar] 위,아래, 앞, 뒤 : Location nouns

Location nouns
위/아래/앞/뒤/옆/왼쪽/오른쪽/안/밖

 

We are going to learn location nouns in this post.  You can put these location nouns into ‘-이/가 -에 있어요/없어요 (~ is at/in somewhere) in the previous post(click).  Let’s look at the table below to learn location nouns.

Korean
English
Example
top,above
책상 위 on the desk
아래
under, bottom
책상 아래 under the desk
front
책상 앞 in front of the desk
back, behind
책상 뒤 behind the desk
next to
책상 옆 next to the desk
왼쪽
to the left of ~
책상 왼쪽 to the left of the desk
오른쪽
to the right of~
책상 오른쪽 to the right of desk
inside the ~
집 안 inside the house
outside of the~
집 밖 outside of the house
A하고 B 사이
between A and B
책상하고 의자 사이 between the desk and the chair

 

You can make it into a question with the question noun “어디” which means “where” instead of the noun in “Location noun+에“.

e.g)

시계가 책상 에 있어요.
The clock is on the desk.
시계가 책상 아래에 있어요.
The clock is under the desk.
시계가 책상 에 있어요.
The clock is in front of the desk.
시계가 책상 에 있어요.
The clock is behind the desk.
시계가 책상에 있어요.
The clock is next to the desk.
시계가 책상 왼쪽에 있어요.
The clock is to the left of the desk.
시계가 책상 오른쪽에 있어요.
The clock is to the right of the desk.
고양이가 집 에 있어요.
The cat is inside the house.
고양이가 집에 있어요.
The cat is outside of the house.
고양이가 책상하고 의자 사이에 있어요.
The cat is between the desk and the chair.
선생님이 어디에 있어요?
Where is the teacher?
화장실이 어디에 있어요?
Where is the bathroom?

You can listen to the pronunciation here.

Practice1>> Tranlate it to English.

1) 돈이 가방에 없어요.

2) 컴퓨터가 집에 없어요.

3) 시계가 책상 위에 있어요.

4) 사과가 냉장고 안에 있어요.

5) 학교가 어디에 있어요?

6) 선생님이 어디에 있어요?

 

Practice2>>Translate it to Korean.

1) Where is your house?

2) The book is on the top of the desk.

3) My friend is not in America.

4) Where is the school?

5) The pen is under the book.

6) Is the cell phone in the bag?

 

If you know the answer, please leave a reply under this post. I will post the answer next weekend!

[Grammar] -에서 Place particle

-에서 Place particle

 

We have learned the place particle -에 on the previous post(click), -에 is a place particle which means ‘existence(-에 있어요/없어요)’ or ‘direction(-에 가요/와요)’.

-에서 is also a place particle, but this is for an action, such as “I work at home”, “I study at the library” or “I eat lunch at a restaurant”.  In those sentences, ‘work’, ‘study’ and ‘eat’ have actions, you “do” something.  Let’s look at sentences below.

에서 텔레비전을 봐요.(보다:watch) I am watching TV at home.
학교에서 공부해요.(공부하다:study) I am studying at my school.
회사에서 일해요.(일하다:work) I am working at my company.
도서관에서 책을 읽어요.(읽다:read) I am reading books at the library.
커피숍에서 친구를 만나요.(만나다:meet) I am meeting my friend at the coffee shop.
극장에서 영화를 봐요.(보다:watch) I am watching a movie at the theater.
백화점에서 신발을 사요.(사다:buy) I am buying shoes at the department store.
친구 집에서 컴퓨터 게임해요.(게임하다:play a game) I am playing a computer game at my friend’s home.

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

* Here is the difference between 에 and 에서. -에 is used for existence(있어요/없어요/살아요) and destination(가요/와요/다녀요), while 에서 is used for action verbs.

 

* 에서 also means ‘from a place’, check this out by clicking here.

[Grammar] Direction particle -으로/로

I put a post about ‘-(으)로’ which means ‘method’, ‘means’ or ‘way’ in the previous post(click).   -(으)로 also is used for indicating a direction, it can be translated ‘to’ or ‘toward’ in English.

Form>

 Nouns(consonants ending)
으로
앞으로, 옆으로, 집으로, 시청으로, 부산으로
 Nouns(vowel or ㄹ ending)
위로, 아래로, 뒤로, 출구로, 서울로,

e.g)

consonant ending
으로 가세요.
Go forward.
왼쪽으로 도세요.(돌다: turn)
Turn left.
이 버스(가) 시청으로 가요?
Is this bus going to(toward) the City Hall?
으로 가고 있어요.
I am on my way home.
위층으로 올라 가세요.
Go upstairs.
vowel or ㄹending
아래 내려 가세요.
Go down.
넘어졌어요.
Fell down on my back.
4번 출구 나오세요.
Come out from(toward) Exit 4.
이 기차가 서울로 가요?
Is this train going to Seoul?

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

-(으)로 is very similar to the destination particle ‘-에’, but the difference is that ‘-으로’ emphasizes “direction/headed” and ‘-에’ focuses on ‘destination’.  For example,

집으로 가고 있어요. means “I am heading for home”; it might not mean ‘the destination is home’. 집에 가고 있어요. means “I am going home”; the destination is home.  So “집에 가서 쉬세요(go home take a rest)” is correct, but “집으로 가서 쉬세요” is weird.  Also, You can say “서울에 도착했어요(arrive in Seoul) , but you can’t say “서울로 도착했어요“.

 

Verbs only with -(으), not -에
Verbs only with -에, not -(으)로
-(으)로 떠나다 : leave for
-(으)로 이사가다/오다 : move to
-(으)로 출발하다 : depart for
-에 도착하다 : arrive at/in

 

 

[Grammar] -에 particle

-에 is a particle that has many meanings. (It has 16 different meanings!!) In this post, I am going to explain three main uses.

1. Place (existence) : -에 often with 있어요/없어요 and 살아요, it means something/someone is at/on/in a place.
선생님이 학교에 있어요.  The teacher is at the school.
민수 씨가 도서관에 있어요.  Minsu is at the library.
동생이 집에 있어요.  My younger sister(brother) is at home.
오빠가 집에 없어요.  My older brother is not at home.

2. Place (destination) : -에 often with 가요(go)/와요(come)/다녀요(attend), it indicates a destination.
저는 지금 집에 가요. I am going home.
화장실에 가요. I am going to the restroom.
어디에 가요? Where are you going?
미나 씨가 도서관에 가요. Mina is going to the library.
언제 한국에 와요? When are you coming to Korea?
저는 A대학교에 다녀요. I am attending at A University.

3. Time : -에 also means verb/adjective happens at/in/on the time.
내년 한국 가요. I am going to Korea next year.
월요일 친구 집 가요. I am going to my friend’s house on Monday.
아침 학교 있어요. I am at school in the morning.
9시 아침 먹어요. I eat the breakfast at 9 o’clock.
As you can see, you can use two 에 in one sentence which are different meanings.

You should add 에 after most time nouns, but some time nouns don’t need 에 such as 오늘, 어제, 내일, 매일/매주/매달/매년, 언제, 지금.
오늘 백화점에 가요.  I am going to a department store today.
매일 공부해요. I study every day.
지금 뭐 해요? What are you doing now?

And if there are more than two time nouns, you can just add 에 for the last time noun. For example,
오늘 오후 영화를 봐요. I am going to watch a movie this afternoon.
이번 주 월요일 시간이 없어요. I don’t have time this Monday.
다음 주 금요일 4시 만나요. Let’s meet at 4 next Friday.
내년 9월 10일 5시 결혼해요. I am going to get married at 5 o’clock on September 10th next year.

  • Many students get confused by -에(place) and -에서(place), if you want to learn more about this please click here.