basic Korean verbs and adjectives-past tense

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동사/형용사 verbs/adjectives -(았/었/했)어요
가르치다 to teach 가르쳤어요.
배우다 to learn 배웠어요.
회의하다 to have a meeting 회의했어요.
끝나다 to be finished 끝났어요.
시작하다 to start 시작했어요.
빌리다 to borrow 빌렸어요.
여행 가다 to go on a travel 여행 갔어요.
읽다 to read 읽었어요.
좋아하다 to like 좋아했어요.
운동하다 to exercise 운동했어요.
테니스를 치다 to play tennis 테니스를 쳤어요.
결혼하다 to marry 결혼했어요.
고치다 to fix 고쳤어요.
초대하다 to invite 초대했어요.
좋다 to be good 좋았어요.
켜다 to turn on 켰어요.
많다 to be many 많았어요.
말하다 to speak 말했어요.
맛있다 to be delicious 맛있었어요.
맛없다 not be delicious 맛없었어요.
먹다 to eat 먹었어요.
사다 to buy 샀어요.
이사하다 to move 이사했어요.
만들다 to make 만들었어요.
정리하다 to organize 정리했어요.
졸업하다 to graduate 졸업했어요.
준비하다 to prepare 준비했어요.
청소하다 to clean 청소했어요.
만나다 to meet 만났어요.
피곤하다 to be tired 피곤했어요.
마시다 to drink 마셨어요.
앉다 to sit 앉았어요.
이야기하다 to talk 이야기했어요.
열다 to open 열었어요.
일하다 to work 일했어요.
끄다 to turn off 껐어요.
바쁘다 to be busy 바빴어요.
아프다 to be sick 아팠어요.
예쁘다 to be pretty 예뻤어요.
가다 to go 갔어요.
오다 to come 왔어요.
자다 to sleep 잤어요.
공부하다 to study 공부했어요.
기다리다 to wait 기다렸어요.
듣다 to listen 들었어요.
걷다 to walk 걸었어요.
닫다 to close 닫았어요.
받다 to receive 받았어요.
춥다 to be cold 추웠어요.
덥다 to be hot 더웠어요.

 

You can listen to audio files by clicking here.

[Grammar] ‘ㅂ’ 불규칙 : ‘ㅂ’ irregular verb/adjective

 ‘ㅂ’ 불규칙 : ‘ㅂ’ irregular verb/adjective

When a verb or an adjective stem which ends in ‘ㅂ’ is followed by an ending beginning with a vowel, ‘ㅂ’ changes to ‘우’. However there are two words(돕다:help, 곱다:beautiful) meet an ending which beginning with -아/어(not -으), ‘ㅂ’changes to ‘오’.

Verb/Adjective(‘ㅂ’ ending) + ending(vowel) => ‘ㅂ’ -> 우

고맙(다) + 아/어, -으 => 고마우 + 어, 고마+우
춥(다) + 아/어, -으 => 추우+ 어, 고마+우

 

V/A
ㅂ -> 우
adding an ending
change
고맙() + /어
고맙(다) + 으
=> 고마
=> 고마
=> 고마 + 어
=> 고마 + 면
=> 고마
=> 고마
춥() + /
춥(다) + 면 
=> 추
=> 추
=> 추 + 어
=> 추 + 면
=> 추
=> 추
돕() + /
돕(다) + 으
곱(다) + 아/어
곱(다) + 으면 
=> 도
=> 도
=> 고
=> 고
=> 도오+아
=> 도+면
=> 고오+아
=> 고+면
=> 도와
=> 도
=> 고와
=> 고

 

There are more ‘ㅂ’ irregular verbs and adjectives below.

verb/adjective
English
-아/어요
-으면
맵다
spicy
워요
우면
춥다
cold
워요
우면
덥다
hot
워요
우면
무겁다
heavy
무거워요
무거우면
가볍다
light
가벼워요
가벼우면
아름답다
beautiful
아름다워요
아름다우면

 

e.g)

이 음식이 너무 매워요.
This food is too spicy.
오늘 날씨가 너무 추워요.
Today is too cold.
한국의 여름은 정말 더워요.
It is really hot in Korea in the Summer.
가방이 무거워요.
This bag is very heavy.
경치가 정말 아름다워요.
The view is very beautiful.
도와 주세요.
Please help me.

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

 

There are few verbs and adjective don’t change their shape even though they have ‘ㅂ’ final consonant. For example,

입(다) : wear -> + 어요 => 입어요 
잡(다) :grab, catch -> 잡 + 아요 => 잡아요

민수 씨가 티셔츠를 입었어요.
Minsu is wearing a T-shirt.
경찰이 범인을 잡았어요.
The police caught the criminal.

[Grammar] ‘으’탈락: ‘으’ drop verbs

 ‘으’탈락 :  ‘으’ drop verbs

I put the title as ‘으’ drop instead of ‘으’ irregular because the ‘irregular rule’ has an exception(also is called the regular rule), but ‘drop rule’ doesn’t have an exception. That means every verb and adjective ending in ‘으’ , it drops ‘으’ when it meets an ending which beginning with 아/어.

 

Verb/Adjective(‘으’ ending) + 아/어 => ‘으’ drop
(adding ‘아/어’ depends on a preceding syllable’s vowel)

 

V/A
drop
preceding syllable’s vowel
change
바쁘() + / 
=> 바ㅃ
=> (vowel) + 아
=> 바빠
예쁘() + / 
=> 예ㅃ 
=> (vowel ) + 어 
=> 예뻐
() + / 
=> ㅆ 
=> no preceding syllable + 어
=> 

e.g)

지난주에 아주 바빴어요.
I was really busy last week.
제 동생은 정말 예뻐요.
My younger sister is really pretty.
오랜만에 친구를 만나서 정말 기뻤어요.
I was so happy to meet my friend who haven’t seen for a long time.
친구한테 편지를 썼어요.
I wrote a letter to my friend.

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

[Grammar] ‘ㄷ’ 불규칙 ; ‘ㄷ’ Irregular verb

‘ㄷ’ 불규칙 ; ‘ㄷ’ Irregular verb

 

When a verb stem ending in ‘ㄷ’ is followed by an ending beginning with a vowel, ‘ㄷ’ changes to ‘ㄹ’. 

Verb(ㄷ ending) + vowel -> ㄷ changes to
걷(다) + 어 -> 걸어
걷(다) + 으 -> 걸으

Verbs

beginning with -아(어)

beginning with -(으)

걷다(walk)

묻다(ask)

듣다(listen)

깨닫다(realize)

걸어요

물어요

들어요

깨달아요

걸으면

물으면

들으면

깨달으면

e.g) 

저기까지 같이 걸어 가요.

Let’s walk over there together.  

이길을 걸으면 옛날 친구 생각이 나요.

 When I walk this street, think of my old friend. 

우리 선생님한테 물어 보세요.

I suggest you to (try to) ask my teacher. 

이 노래 한번 들어 보세요.

I suggest you to (try to) listen to this song. 

음악을 들으면 마음이 편해요.

 I am very relaxed when I listen to music. 

You can also listen to the pronunciation here

 

However, not all of the ‘ㄷ’ending verbs change their shape, some of them don’t change. For example, 

Verbs

beginning with -아(어)

beginning with -(으)

받다(receive)

닫다(close)

믿다(believe)

묻다(be stained)

받아요

닫아요

믿어요

묻어요

받으면

닫으면

믿으면

묻으면

e.g)

친구한테서 선물을 받았어요.

I got a gift from my friend. 

문을 닫으세요.

 Please close the door.

저는 민수 씨 말을 믿어요.

 I believe what Minsu said.

민수 씨, 옷에 커피가 묻었어요.  

 Minsu, there is a coffee stain on your shirt. 

You can listen to the pronunciation here

[Grammar] Present tense 아요/어요/여요

present

In Korean, the infinitive form of verbs and adjectives is -다.  For instance, 가(to go), 좋(be good), 먹(to eat) and 마시(to drink).

When you say these verbs and adjective as a present tense, you should add the present tense verb/adjective ending -아요/어요/여요.

The form is depending on the last letter’s vowel on the stem. The stem is the last letter after you take off ‘다’.

The steps are

1) Take off ‘다’
2) Look at the last letter’s vowel on the stem
3) If the vowel is ‘ㅏ’or ‘ㅗ’, add 아요.  If the vowel is not ‘ㅏ’or ‘ㅗ’, add 어요. If the verb stem is 하, add 여요.

1. verb / adjective(the stem’s vowel is ‘ㅏ’ or ‘ㅗ’ ) + 아요
ex)
다 (‘가’ is the stem -> the vowel is ‘ㅏ’ ) + 아요 => 가아요 => 가요(combine 가and 아 )
다(‘오’ is the stem -> the vowel is ‘ㅗ’)  + 아요 => 오아요 => 와요(combine 오and 아 )
다(‘살’ is the stem ->the vowel is ‘ㅏ’)  + 아요 => 살아요

2. verb / adjective(the stem’s vowel is not ‘ㅏ’ or ‘ㅗ’ ) + 어요
ex)
다(‘주’ is the stem -> the vowel is ‘ㅜ’)  +어요  => 주어요      => 줘요(주+어=>줘 )
다 (‘시’ is the last letter -> the vowel is ‘ㅣ’ ) +어요  => 마시어요 => 마셔요(시+어=>셔)
다(‘먹’is the stem -> the vowel is ‘ㅓ’) +어요  => 먹어요

3. verb/adjecitve ends with ‘하다’ + 여요  => 하(take off 다) + 여요
ex)
공부다 -> 공부하(take off 다)+ 여요 => 공부하여요(‘하여’ =>해)  => 공부해요
피곤다 -> 피곤하(take off 다) + 여요 => 피곤하여요 => 피곤해요

Vocabulary)

가다 : to go
오다 : to come
살다 : to live
먹다 : to eat
마시다 : to drink
주다 : to give
공부하다 : to study
피곤하다 : be tired

Practice)

만나다 (to meet)
좋다(be good)
보다(to see)
자다(to sleep)
웃다(to smile)
울다(to cry)
운동하다(to exercise)
수영하다(to swim)

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