[Grammar] ‘으’탈락: ‘으’ drop verbs

 ‘으’탈락 :  ‘으’ drop verbs

I put the title as ‘으’ drop instead of ‘으’ irregular because the ‘irregular rule’ has an exception(also is called the regular rule), but ‘drop rule’ doesn’t have an exception. That means every verb and adjective ending in ‘으’ , it drops ‘으’ when it meets an ending which beginning with 아/어.

 

Verb/Adjective(‘으’ ending) + 아/어 => ‘으’ drop
(adding ‘아/어’ depends on a preceding syllable’s vowel)

 

V/A
drop
preceding syllable’s vowel
change
바쁘() + / 
=> 바ㅃ
=> (vowel) + 아
=> 바빠
예쁘() + / 
=> 예ㅃ 
=> (vowel ) + 어 
=> 예뻐
() + / 
=> ㅆ 
=> no preceding syllable + 어
=> 

e.g)

지난주에 아주 바빴어요.
I was really busy last week.
제 동생은 정말 예뻐요.
My younger sister is really pretty.
오랜만에 친구를 만나서 정말 기뻤어요.
I was so happy to meet my friend who haven’t seen for a long time.
친구한테 편지를 썼어요.
I wrote a letter to my friend.

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

[Grammar] ‘ㄷ’ 불규칙 ; ‘ㄷ’ Irregular verb

‘ㄷ’ 불규칙 ; ‘ㄷ’ Irregular verb

 

When a verb stem ending in ‘ㄷ’ is followed by an ending beginning with a vowel, ‘ㄷ’ changes to ‘ㄹ’. 

Verb(ㄷ ending) + vowel -> ㄷ changes to
걷(다) + 어 -> 걸어
걷(다) + 으 -> 걸으

Verbs

beginning with -아(어)

beginning with -(으)

걷다(walk)

묻다(ask)

듣다(listen)

깨닫다(realize)

걸어요

물어요

들어요

깨달아요

걸으면

물으면

들으면

깨달으면

e.g) 

저기까지 같이 걸어 가요.

Let’s walk over there together.  

이길을 걸으면 옛날 친구 생각이 나요.

 When I walk this street, think of my old friend. 

우리 선생님한테 물어 보세요.

I suggest you to (try to) ask my teacher. 

이 노래 한번 들어 보세요.

I suggest you to (try to) listen to this song. 

음악을 들으면 마음이 편해요.

 I am very relaxed when I listen to music. 

You can also listen to the pronunciation here

 

However, not all of the ‘ㄷ’ending verbs change their shape, some of them don’t change. For example, 

Verbs

beginning with -아(어)

beginning with -(으)

받다(receive)

닫다(close)

믿다(believe)

묻다(be stained)

받아요

닫아요

믿어요

묻어요

받으면

닫으면

믿으면

묻으면

e.g)

친구한테서 선물을 받았어요.

I got a gift from my friend. 

문을 닫으세요.

 Please close the door.

저는 민수 씨 말을 믿어요.

 I believe what Minsu said.

민수 씨, 옷에 커피가 묻었어요.  

 Minsu, there is a coffee stain on your shirt. 

You can listen to the pronunciation here

-(으)면 and -다면

verb/adj + -(으)면
noun + (이)면

-(으)면 means ‘if’ and ‘when’, it connects two sentences which are the first sentence(conditional) + the second sentence(result). The conditional sentence is about the future or something that doesn’t happen right now, so you shouldn’t use the past tense in the second sentence. (

Verb/Adjective stem(consonant) + 으면 : 먹으면, 받으면, 있으면
Verb/Adjective stem(vowel or ㄹ) + 면 : 마시면, 사면, 오면, 벌면

1) 저는 고기를 많이 먹으면 배가 아파요. When I eat too much meat, my stomach hurts.
2) 이번 달 월급을 받으면 차를 살 거예요. When I get my paycheck(salary) this month, I am going to buy a car.
3) 해가 뜨면 날씨가 따뜻해져요. When the sun comes up, the weather gets warmer.
4) 저는 술을 마시면 얼굴이 빨개져요. When I drink alcohol, my face turns red.
5) 이따가 집에 가면 전화할게요. When I get home later, I will call you.
6) 비가 오면 집에 있을 거예요. If it rains, I will stay home.
7) 수업이 일찍 끝나면 뭐 할 거예요? If the class finishes early, what are you going to do?
8) 학생이면 학생증을 보여 주세요. If you are a student, please show me your student ID.
9) 50 달러가 있으면 좀 빌려 주세요. If you have $50, please lend it to me.

* 비가 오면 집에 있었어요. (X)

Practice)
1) 집에 도착하다 + 저한테 전화해 주세요.
2) 날씨가 좋다 + 사진 찍으러 가요.
3) 사진을 찍다 + 보여 주세요.
4) 친구를 사귀고 싶다 + 우리 모임에 오세요.
5) 한국어를 할 줄 알다 + 이것 좀 번역해 주세요.
6) 제가 집에 없다 + 메모를 남기세요.
7) 배가 아프다 + 병원에 가 보세요.

Uses in Korean songs)

이문세 <가을이 오면> Lee Moon Se < When fall comes>

이문세 – 가을이 오면 (1987年) – YouTube

verb+ㄴ/는다면
adj + 다면
noun(이)라면

You probably have heard “Fake Love” by BTS. The beginning of the song starts with 널 위해서라면. What is –라면? It is definitely not ‘Ramen noodle’ (Sorry about the bad joke :P)

-다면 is attached to a veb/adj and (이)라면 is attached to a noun, and -다 and -(이)라 are the part of indirect speech. (for indirect speech, click here) The meaning is the same as -(으)면, it means ‘if’. The difference is 다면 is used only for condition or assumption, not every day thing or you are 100% sure something is happening. For example,
1) 해가 뜨면 날씨가 따뜻해져요. When the sun comes up, the weather gets warmer.
1) 해가 뜬다면 날씨가 따뜻해져요. If the sun comes up, the weather gets warmer. (X)
1) 내일 해가 안 뜬다면 정말 슬플 거예요. If the sun doesn’t come up tomorrow, I will be very sad. (O)

2) 고기를 많이 먹으면 배가 아파요. When I eat too much meat, my stomach hurts.
2) 고기를 많이 먹는다면 배가 아파요. If I eat too much meat, my stomach hurts. (X)
2) 매일 이렇게 고기를 많이 먹는다면 건강이 나빠질 거예요. (O) – If you eat meat this much every day, your health will get bad.

3) 이따가 집에 가면 전화할게요. When I get home later, I will call you.
3) 이따가 집에 간다면 전화할게요. (X) If I get home later, I will call you.
3) 한국에 간다면 어디에 제일 먼저 가고 싶어요? (O) If you go to Korea, where do you want to go first?

For more examples with -다면 and 라면,
1) 동물로 태어난다면 무슨 동물이 되고 싶어? If you were born in an animal, what kind of animal do you want to be?
2) 내가 새라면 너한테 날아갈 수 있을 텐데… If I were a bird, I would fly to you.
3) 내가 너라면 그렇게 안 할 거야. If I were you, I wouldn’t do that.
4) 이게 꿈이라면 좋겠다. I would be nice if this were a dream.
5) 너에게 갈 수 있다면… If I could come to you…

#으면 if #면 if #Korean conditional #다면 if #으면 meaning #면 meaning #라면 #다면 meaning #으면 and 다면 #으면 vs 다면 #으면and라면 #으면 when #면 when