Hangeul 8 – Final consonants

Hangeul 8-  7 Final consonants

In Korean

1) ㄴ ‘n’

2) ㅁ ‘m’

3) ㅇ ‘ng’

4) ㄹ ‘l’

5) ㄱ(ㄲ,ㅋ) ‘k’

: ㄱ, ㄲ, ㅋ are the same sound(ㄱ) when they are locate in an ending consonant.    e.g) 억 = 엌

6) ㅂ(ㅍ) ‘p’

: ㅂandㅍ are the same sound(ㅂ) when they are locate in an ending consonant.   e.g) 입 = 잎

7) ㄷ(ㅌ,ㅅ,ㅆ,ㅈ,ㅊ,ㅎ) ‘t’

:  ㄷ,ㅌ,ㅅ,ㅆ,ㅈ,ㅊ,ㅎ are the same sound(ㄷ) when they are locate in an ending consonant.    e.g) 읻 = 잍 = 잇 = 있 = 잊 = 잋 = 잏

If you have any question, please leave a reply.

[Vocabulary] English words in Korean

텔레비전
television
cup
샴푸
shampoo
커튼
curtain
컴퓨터
computer
피아노
piano
뉴스
news
커피
coffee
버스
bus
택시
taxi
인터넷
internet
에어컨(Konglish)
air-conditioner
핸드폰(Konglish) : hand+phone
cell phone
아파트(Konglish)
apartment
리모콘(Konglish)
remote control

Konglish means Korean English 🙂
핸드폰 is also called 휴대전화(portable phone), however a lot of people use 핸드폰.

You can also listen to pronunciation here.

[Grammar] 이/가 vs 은/는 : Subject particle vs topic particle

We have learned Korean particles in the previous post(click).  This post is about subject particles and topic particles. The subject particles are  이 and 가, the topic particles are 은 and 는

Noun(ends with a consonant) + 이 

Noun(ends with a vowel) +

 

For example,

뭐예요?.  What is your name?
며칠이에요? What date is today?
예뻐요. The baby is pretty.

And many people are confused the subject particle with the topic particle -은/는.

-은 and 는 are not subject particle. 

-은/는 can substitute -이/가(subject particle) and -을/를(object particle), which means you CAN’T use the topic particle and the subject/object particle for one noun.  We should use either topic particle or subject/object particle.

Noun(ends with a consonant) +

Noun(ends with a vowel) +

 

For beginners, we just need to know -은/는 are used for

1. when you introduce a noun

For example,

이민수예요.  I am Lee Minsu.
한국 사람이에요. I am Korean.
28살이에요. I am 28 years old.
우리 한국어 선생님 남자예요. My Korean teacher is a male.

2. when you compare two nouns

For example,

민수 씨는 사과를 좋아해요. 그런데 유진 씨는 사과를 안 좋아해요.
(Minsu likes apples, but Yujin doesn’t like apples)
– 민수 씨 and 유진 씨 are subjects.
* 민수 씨가는(X), 유진 씨가는(X)

민수 씨가 사과는 좋아해요. 그런데 (민수 씨가) 바나나는 안 좋아해요.
(Minsu likes apples, but he doesn’t like bananas.)
– 사과 and 바나나 are objects. 
* 사과를은(X), 바나나를은(X)

3. When you ask about new information, it is safe to use -이/가 and when you answer the question, you should -은/는

For example,

A: 이름이 뭐예요? What is your name?
B: 제 이름은 이민수예요. My name is Lee Minsu.

A: 오늘이 며칠이에요? What date is today?
B: 오늘은 8월 7일이에요. Today is August 7.

A: 이 분이 누구예요? Who is this person?
B: (이 분은) 제 어머니예요.  (This person is) My mother.

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

 

[Expression] 무슨 요일이에요? What day is it?

오늘무슨 요일이에요?
What day is it today?

 

A : 오늘이 무슨 요일이에요?  What day is it today?

B: 월요일이에요. It is Monday.

 

Tip>> You don’t need to repeat ‘오늘(today)’ because it is repeated. We don’t normally say the subject that is repeated.

 

Vocabulary>>

오늘 : today

무슨 : what kind of

요일 : day

무슨 요일 : what day, which day of the week

이에요? : is

월요일[워료일] : Monday

화요일 : Tuesday

수요일 : Wednesday

목요일[모교일] : Thursday

금요일[그묘일] : Friday

토요일 : Saturday

일요일[이료일] : Sunday

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

[Expression] A 말고 B : not A but B

 A 말고 B means ‘not A but B’, ‘except for A’ or ‘B instead of A’ in English.
You can use this with nouns or verbs. Let’s look at nouns first.

noun(A) 말고 noun(B)

이거 말고 저거 주세요.
Give me that one, not this one.
우리 커피 말고 차 마셔요.
Let’s drink tea instead of coffee.
그 사람 말고 민수 씨하고 가고 싶어요.
I want to go with Minsu instead of that guy.
말고 다른 사람한테 얘기하지 마세요.
Don’t tell anyone but me.
이 색깔 말고 다른 색은 없어요?
Do you have other colors except for this color?

 

If you want to use this with verbs, you should put ‘-지’ in front of ‘말고’

Verb-지 말고 Verb

지 말고 공부해.
Don’t play, study!
거기 가지 말고 같이 영화 봐요.
Don’t go there, let’s watch a movie.
회사 가지 말고 저하고 같이 놀러 가요.
Don’t go to work, let’s hang out with me.
너무 슬퍼하지 말고 힘내세요.
Please don’t be sad, cheer up!
영어로 이야기하지 말고 한국어로 이야기하세요.
Don’t speak in English, speak in Korean.

 

[Grammar] Direction particle -으로/로

I put a post about ‘-(으)로’ which means ‘method’, ‘means’ or ‘way’ in the previous post(click).   -(으)로 also is used for indicating a direction, it can be translated ‘to’ or ‘toward’ in English.

Form>

 Nouns(consonants ending)
으로
앞으로, 옆으로, 집으로, 시청으로, 부산으로
 Nouns(vowel or ㄹ ending)
위로, 아래로, 뒤로, 출구로, 서울로,

e.g)

consonant ending
으로 가세요.
Go forward.
왼쪽으로 도세요.(돌다: turn)
Turn left.
이 버스(가) 시청으로 가요?
Is this bus going to(toward) the City Hall?
으로 가고 있어요.
I am on my way home.
위층으로 올라 가세요.
Go upstairs.
vowel or ㄹending
아래 내려 가세요.
Go down.
넘어졌어요.
Fell down on my back.
4번 출구 나오세요.
Come out from(toward) Exit 4.
이 기차가 서울로 가요?
Is this train going to Seoul?

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

-(으)로 is very similar to the destination particle ‘-에’, but the difference is that ‘-으로’ emphasizes “direction/headed” and ‘-에’ focuses on ‘destination’.  For example,

집으로 가고 있어요. means “I am heading for home”; it might not mean ‘the destination is home’. 집에 가고 있어요. means “I am going home”; the destination is home.  So “집에 가서 쉬세요(go home take a rest)” is correct, but “집으로 가서 쉬세요” is weird.  Also, You can say “서울에 도착했어요(arrive in Seoul) , but you can’t say “서울로 도착했어요“.

 

Verbs only with -(으), not -에
Verbs only with -에, not -(으)로
-(으)로 떠나다 : leave for
-(으)로 이사가다/오다 : move to
-(으)로 출발하다 : depart for
-에 도착하다 : arrive at/in

 

 

[Grammar] 왜? Question words

Question words for Beginners

Untitled-1

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

어느
which
어느 나라 사람이에요?
Where are you from?
어느 학교 다녀요?
Which school are you attending?
누구
whom, whose
누구 거예요?
Whose thing is it?
누가
who(subject)
누가 안 왔어요?
Who didn’t come?
what
뭐 해요?
What are you doing?
무엇
formal word of ‘뭐’
무엇을 합니까?
What are you doing?
무슨+ N
what kind of N
무슨 음식을 좋아해요?
What food do you like?
무슨 책을 읽어요?
What book do you read?
why
왜 안 왔어요?
Why didn’t you come?
전화 왜 안 받아요?
Why didn’t you answer my phone?
어디
where
어디에 가요?
Where are you going?
어디에서 왔어요?
Where are you (coming) from?
언제
when
언제 한국에 왔어요?
When did you come to Korea?
언제 집에 와요?
When are you coming home?
어떻게
how
부산에 어떻게 가요?
How do I get to Busan.
이거 어떻게 해요?
How do I do this?
how many, what
몇 개예요?
How many is this?
몇 월이에요?
What month is it?
며칠
what date, how many days
오늘 며칠이에요?
What date is today?
며칠 동안 여행해요?
How many days are you going to travel?

 

A lot of Koreans write ‘며칠’ as ‘몇일’, but ‘몇일’ is wrong.  If you see anyone(Korean) write it wrong, please correct them!

[Grammar] -에 particle

-에 is a particle that has many meanings. (It has 16 different meanings!!) In this post, I am going to explain three main uses.

1. Place (existence) : -에 often with 있어요/없어요 and 살아요, it means something/someone is at/on/in a place.
선생님이 학교에 있어요.  The teacher is at the school.
민수 씨가 도서관에 있어요.  Minsu is at the library.
동생이 집에 있어요.  My younger sister(brother) is at home.
오빠가 집에 없어요.  My older brother is not at home.

2. Place (destination) : -에 often with 가요(go)/와요(come)/다녀요(attend), it indicates a destination.
저는 지금 집에 가요. I am going home.
화장실에 가요. I am going to the restroom.
어디에 가요? Where are you going?
미나 씨가 도서관에 가요. Mina is going to the library.
언제 한국에 와요? When are you coming to Korea?
저는 A대학교에 다녀요. I am attending at A University.

3. Time : -에 also means verb/adjective happens at/in/on the time.
내년 한국 가요. I am going to Korea next year.
월요일 친구 집 가요. I am going to my friend’s house on Monday.
아침 학교 있어요. I am at school in the morning.
9시 아침 먹어요. I eat the breakfast at 9 o’clock.
As you can see, you can use two 에 in one sentence which are different meanings.

You should add 에 after most time nouns, but some time nouns don’t need 에 such as 오늘, 어제, 내일, 매일/매주/매달/매년, 언제, 지금.
오늘 백화점에 가요.  I am going to a department store today.
매일 공부해요. I study every day.
지금 뭐 해요? What are you doing now?

And if there are more than two time nouns, you can just add 에 for the last time noun. For example,
오늘 오후 영화를 봐요. I am going to watch a movie this afternoon.
이번 주 월요일 시간이 없어요. I don’t have time this Monday.
다음 주 금요일 4시 만나요. Let’s meet at 4 next Friday.
내년 9월 10일 5시 결혼해요. I am going to get married at 5 o’clock on September 10th next year.

  • Many students get confused by -에(place) and -에서(place), if you want to learn more about this please click here.

[Grammar] Sports 운동

photo

무슨 운동을 좋아해요? What is your favorite sport? Mine is 야구(baseball). Practice these and tell me about your favorite sport! Let’s go A’s!!!!!

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

Noun
Verb
English
농구
하다
basketball
축구
하다
soccer
야구
하다
baseball
배구
하다
volleyball
수영
하다
swimming
테니스
치다
tennis
탁구
치다
table tennis
배드민턴
치다
badminton
볼링
치다
bowling
태권도
하다
Taekwondo
유도
하다
Judo
스키
타다
ski
스노우보드
타다
snowboard