[Grammar] -(으)니까 realize, find out

We learned -(으)니까 as a meaning of reason/result in beginners level (you can study -(으)니까 for beginner by clicking here).  In this post, we are going to learn another meaning which is ‘to realize a new fact or to find out a situation after a subject does this action’.

For example,
학교에 가니까 사람이 한 명도 없었어요. When I went to school, nobody is there.
In this sentence, it is not ‘because~so~’, it means the speaker(subject) found out there are no people after he arrived at school. Let’s look at another sentence.

먹어 보니까 맵지 않더라고요. I tried it, and it was not spicy.
In this sentence, the speaker(subject) realized it was not spicy after he tried something.

Like the sentence above, -(으)니까 can be with -아/어/여 보다, -고 나다 or -다가 보다.

(*’까’ can be omitted sometimes, but it feels more formal. )


Here are more examples,

우체국에 가니까 문이 닫혀 있었어요. I found out the post office was closed after I got there.

생각해 보니까 나쁘지 않았어요.  I realized that it was not that bad.

시간이 지나고 나니까(지나고 보니까) 좋은 경험이었던 것 같아요.  I realized after a while that it was great experience.

일을 끝내고 나니(까) 기분이 좋아졌어요.  I realized that I felt better after I finished working.

고 보니(까) 좋은 사람이더라고요. I found out that he is actually a good person.

고 보니(까) 기분 나쁘네. I realized that I feel terrible hearing.

공부를 하다가 보니(까) 어렵지 않았어요. I realized that it was not difficult after I studied for a while.

다가 보니(까) 좋아졌어요. I realized that I began enjoying it after I kept listening to it.


You can listen to audio files for these sentence by clicking here.

Hangeul 1 – Single Vowels

Korean Characters

Hangeul 1- 8 Single Vowels 

There are 40 characters in Korean, which are 21 vowels and 19 consonants.  The vowels can be divided to the single vowels and the double vowels.  There are 8 single vowels and 13 double vowels.

We are going to learn the single vowels in this page.

* Single vowels
You should not move your mouth or tongue while you are pronouncing single vowels. 

1) ㅏ  ‘a’ as in ‘father’, ‘spa’
[Click here to watch a video for ㅏ]

2) ㅓ ‘awe’ as in ‘awesome’ and ‘au’ as in ‘August’
[Click here to watch a video for ㅓ]

3) ㅗ ‘o’ as in ‘ghost’, ‘sofa’, however you shouldn’t move your mouth shape.
[Click here to watch a video for ㅗ]

4) ㅜ ‘oo’ as in ‘zoo’, ‘too’. You should make your lips as a round shape. 
[Click here to watch a video for ㅜ]

5) ㅡ There is no pronunciation in English that is similar to this, however you can think of an extremely freezing day, you can make this sound 🙂
[Click here to watch a video for ㅡ]

6) ㅣ’e’ as in ‘me’, ‘see’
[Click here to watch a video for ㅣ]

7-8) ㅔ/ㅐ ‘에’ is similar to ‘e’ as in ‘set, bed’ and ‘애’ is similar to ‘a’ as in ‘dad’, ‘bat’. But many Koreans don’t recognize the difference.
[Click here to watch a video for ㅔ and ㅐ]


[Grammar] -으니까 Because, reason

-(으)니까 Because~, therefore/so~


-(으)니까 means ‘because’ which expresses ‘reason’.  Let’s see the conjugation.

When a verb stem ends with a consonant + 으니까
When a verb stem ends with a vowel + 니까

For example,

날씨가 으니까 공원에 같이 가요.
The weather is nice, (so) let’s go to the park.
비가 니까 우산을 가져 가세요.
It is raining, (so) you should bring an umbrella.

  • In formal sentences, we often omit 까 and just say -(으)니.

It is often compared ‘-아/어/여서’(click here), the difference between ‘-아/어/여서’ and ‘-(으)니까’ is

1) -아/어/여서 can’t be used for suggesting, requesting or ordering, whereas -(으)니까 can.   For example,

  • 날씨가 좋아서 공원에 같이 가요. (X) => 날씨가 좋으니까 공원에 같이 가요. (O)
    같이 가요 => suggestion ; therefore you can’t use -아서
  • 비가 와서 우산을 가져 가세요. (X)  => 비가 오니까 우산을 가져 가세요. (O)
    -(으)세요 is an imperative verb ending; therefore you can’t use -아서
    • verb endings for suggesting are ‘-는 게 어때요?‘, -(으)ㄹ까요?, ‘-(으)ㅂ시다‘, ‘-자‘, ‘같이 -아/어/여요‘ etc and verb endings for requesting or ordering are  ‘-(으)세요‘, ‘-(으)십시오‘ etc.


2) You can’t use the past tense in front of -아/어/여서, while you can put the past tense in front of -(으)니까.  For example,

  • 어제 공부 많이 했어서 피곤해요. (X)    => 어제 공부 많이 해서 피곤해요. (O)
  • 어제 제가 이 영화를 봤으니까 오늘은 다른 영화를 봅시다. (O)



3) often used for general statements or emotion verbs=> -아/어/여서. For example,

  • 만나서 반갑습니다.  Glad to meet you! ( I am happy because I meet you.)
  • 도와 주셔서 감사합니다.  Thanks for your help! (I appreciate because you helped me.)
  • 늦어서 죄송합니다.  Sorry for being late. ( I am sorry because I am late.)
  • 배가 아파서 학교에 안 갔어요. ( I didn’t go to school because my stomach hurt.)



여기 좀 시끄러우니까 다른 데로 가는 게 어때요?
It is loud here, how about going to another place?
민수 씨, 술을 많이 마셨으니까 운전 하지 마세요.
Minsu, You drank a lot, don’t drive!
여기는 도서관이니까 조용히 해야 돼요.
Because we are at the library, we should be quite.
제가 아직 집에 있으니까 조금만 기다려 주세요.
I am still at home, please wait for me a little bit more.
저도 아침을 안 먹었으니까 같이 밥 먹으러 가요.
I haven’t had breakfast yet, let’s go eat.
오늘은 제가 좀 피곤하니까 내일 갈까요?
I am a little bit tired today, can we go tomorrow?
이 우유는 상했으니까 먹지 마세요.
This milk has gone bad, don’t drink it!

You can listen to audio pronunciation on my Quizlet.com. (Click here) 

 If you want to learn more about -(으)니까, please click here.

[Grammar] -아/어/여서 ‘Because’, reasons

-아/어/여서 Because


-아/어/여서 means ‘because’ in English, it takes place after a verb or an adjective.  The conjugation is

1. When a verb/adjective stem ends with ‘아/오’ vowel  + 아서

i.e) – 비가 오(다) => 오(ㅗ vowel) +아서

– 잠을 못 자(다) => 자(ㅏ vowel) + 아서

2. When a verb/adjective stem ends with other vowels besides ‘아/오’ + 어서

– 밥을 안 먹(다) => 먹(ㅓ vowel) + 어서

– 술을 마시(다) => 마시(ㅣ vowel) + 어서

– 아직 안 배우(다) => 배우(ㅜ vowel) + 어서

3. When a verb or an adjective stem ends with ‘하’  + 여서 => 하여 =>

– 공부를 안 하(다) + 여서 => 공부를 안 해서

– 피곤하(다) + 여서 => 피곤해서


비가 와서 날씨가 시원해요.
Because it rains, it is cool.
어제 잠을 못 자서 피곤해요.
Because I didn’t sleep well yesterday, I am tired.
밥을 안 먹어서 배가 고파요.
Because I haven’t had a meal, I am hungry.
어제 술을 많이 마셔서 머리가 아파요.
Because I drank a lot yesterday, I have a headache.
아직 안 배워서 몰라요.
Because I haven’t learned yet, I don’t know.
공부를 안 해서 시험을 못 봤어요.
Because I didn’t study, I didn’t do well on my exam.
어제 피곤해서 잠을 많이 잤어요.
Because I was tired, I slept a lot.

You can listen to the pronunciation on my Quizlet.com (Click here).


As you can see on those sentences, you can’t add the tense in front of -아/어/여서 even though the event happened in the past.  If you want to express the tense, you can add the tense verb ending at the end of the sentence.


One more thing, you can’t use a suggestion sentence or an imperative sentence with -아/어/여서. For example,


Because the weather is nice, let’s go for a walk.  날씨가 좋아서 같이 산책해요.(X)
Because it rains, don’t go outside. 비가 와서 밖에 나가지 마세요.(X)
Because the tickets are sold out, can we see it tomorrow?  오늘 표가 없어서 내일 볼까요?(X)


If you want to use a suggestion or an imperative sentence, you should use -(으)니까.

Because the weather is nice, let’s go for a walk.  날씨가 좋으니까 같이 산책해요. (O)
Because it rains, don’t go outside. 비가 오니까 밖에 나가지 마세요.(O)
Because the tickets are sold out, can we see it tomorrow?   오늘 표가 없으니까 내일 볼까요?(O)


I will post more about -(으)니까 in the later post.


[Expression] A 말고 B : not A but B

 A 말고 B means ‘not A but B’, ‘except for A’ or ‘B instead of A’ in English.
You can use this with nouns or verbs. Let’s look at nouns first.

noun(A) 말고 noun(B)

이거 말고 저거 주세요.
Give me that one, not this one.
우리 커피 말고 차 마셔요.
Let’s drink tea instead of coffee.
그 사람 말고 민수 씨하고 가고 싶어요.
I want to go with Minsu instead of that guy.
말고 다른 사람한테 얘기하지 마세요.
Don’t tell anyone but me.
이 색깔 말고 다른 색은 없어요?
Do you have other colors except for this color?


If you want to use this with verbs, you should put ‘-지’ in front of ‘말고’

Verb-지 말고 Verb

지 말고 공부해.
Don’t play, study!
거기 가지 말고 같이 영화 봐요.
Don’t go there, let’s watch a movie.
회사 가지 말고 저하고 같이 놀러 가요.
Don’t go to work, let’s hang out with me.
너무 슬퍼하지 말고 힘내세요.
Please don’t be sad, cheer up!
영어로 이야기하지 말고 한국어로 이야기하세요.
Don’t speak in English, speak in Korean.


[Grammar] -에서 Place particle

-에서 Place particle


We have learned the place particle -에 on the previous post(click), -에 is a place particle which means ‘existence(-에 있어요/없어요)’ or ‘direction(-에 가요/와요)’.

-에서 is also a place particle, but this is for an action, such as “I work at home”, “I study at the library” or “I eat lunch at a restaurant”.  In those sentences, ‘work’, ‘study’ and ‘eat’ have actions, you “do” something.  Let’s look at sentences below.

에서 텔레비전을 봐요.(보다:watch) I am watching TV at home.
학교에서 공부해요.(공부하다:study) I am studying at my school.
회사에서 일해요.(일하다:work) I am working at my company.
도서관에서 책을 읽어요.(읽다:read) I am reading books at the library.
커피숍에서 친구를 만나요.(만나다:meet) I am meeting my friend at the coffee shop.
극장에서 영화를 봐요.(보다:watch) I am watching a movie at the theater.
백화점에서 신발을 사요.(사다:buy) I am buying shoes at the department store.
친구 집에서 컴퓨터 게임해요.(게임하다:play a game) I am playing a computer game at my friend’s home.

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

* Here is the difference between 에 and 에서. -에 is used for existence(있어요/없어요/살아요) and destination(가요/와요/다녀요), while 에서 is used for action verbs.


* 에서 also means ‘from a place’, check this out by clicking here.

[Grammar] Direction particle -으로/로

I put a post about ‘-(으)로’ which means ‘method’, ‘means’ or ‘way’ in the previous post(click).   -(으)로 also is used for indicating a direction, it can be translated ‘to’ or ‘toward’ in English.


 Nouns(consonants ending)
앞으로, 옆으로, 집으로, 시청으로, 부산으로
 Nouns(vowel or ㄹ ending)
위로, 아래로, 뒤로, 출구로, 서울로,


consonant ending
으로 가세요.
Go forward.
왼쪽으로 도세요.(돌다: turn)
Turn left.
이 버스(가) 시청으로 가요?
Is this bus going to(toward) the City Hall?
으로 가고 있어요.
I am on my way home.
위층으로 올라 가세요.
Go upstairs.
vowel or ㄹending
아래 내려 가세요.
Go down.
Fell down on my back.
4번 출구 나오세요.
Come out from(toward) Exit 4.
이 기차가 서울로 가요?
Is this train going to Seoul?

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

-(으)로 is very similar to the destination particle ‘-에’, but the difference is that ‘-으로’ emphasizes “direction/headed” and ‘-에’ focuses on ‘destination’.  For example,

집으로 가고 있어요. means “I am heading for home”; it might not mean ‘the destination is home’. 집에 가고 있어요. means “I am going home”; the destination is home.  So “집에 가서 쉬세요(go home take a rest)” is correct, but “집으로 가서 쉬세요” is weird.  Also, You can say “서울에 도착했어요(arrive in Seoul) , but you can’t say “서울로 도착했어요“.


Verbs only with -(으), not -에
Verbs only with -에, not -(으)로
-(으)로 떠나다 : leave for
-(으)로 이사가다/오다 : move to
-(으)로 출발하다 : depart for
-에 도착하다 : arrive at/in