[Grammar] 한국어 조사 Korean Particles/ makers part1

There are lots of particles in Korean, some books call them markers.  I will call them particles here. Korean Particles mostly attached to a noun, so there is no space between nouns and particles.  Let’s see what kind of particles are in Korean.

1. Subject particles -이/가 
Noun(ends with a consonant) + 이
Noun(ends with a vowel) + 가
Subject particles attach to a noun to tell us that noun is a subject in a sentence.  For example,
     선생님이 여자예요.  The teacher is a female.
     의자가 어디에 있어요?  Where is the chair?

Koreans often drop the subject particle –이/가  when they make conversations.
i.e) 사과 있어요? Do you have apples?
사과 없어요. I don’t have apples.
돈 있어요?    Do you have money?

2. Object particles -을/를
Noun(ends with a consonant) + 을
Noun(ends with a vowel) + 를
Object particles attach to a noun to tell us that noun is an object in a sentence. For example,
    밥을 안 먹었어요.   I didn’t eat a meal.
    커피를 마셔요.  I am drinking coffee.

3. Topic particles or comparison particles -은/는
Noun(ends with a consonant) + 은
Noun(ends with a vowel) + 는
When -은/는 are topic particles, they substitute subject particles or object particles, which means you cannot use -이/가(or 을/를) and 은/는 at the same time.  Thus, many students get confused by subject particles and topic particles.  I explain these two particles in this post(click). For example,
     선생님은 한국 사람이에요.  The teacher is Korean.
     저는 진우예요.  I am Jin-woo.

-은/는 also can mean ‘comparison’.   For example,
     사과는 좋아해요. 그런데 수박은 안 좋아해요.  I like apples, but I don’t like water melons. (사과를 => 사과는  수박을 => 수박은 )
     제 친구는 영어를 잘해요. 그런데 저는 영어를 못해요.  My friend speaks English very well, but I don’t. (제 친구가 => 제 친구는, 제가 => 저는 )

4. Time and place particle -에 
-에 has lots of meanings, however I only want to talk about time and place here.  For example,
1)  어디에 있어요?  Where is it? : It means ‘existence‘, so it is used with 있다/없다/살다
2)  학교에 가요. I am going to school.  : It means ‘destination‘, so it is used with 가다/오다/다니다
3)  2 시에 만나요.  Let’s meet at 2.  : It means ‘time‘ for this verb/adjective happens.
(However some nouns such as 지금, 어제, 오늘, 내일, 매일, 언제etc don’t add -에)

5. Place particle -에서 (at, in, on)
-에서 is a place particle with “action verbs“.  Many students get confused this with -에, but remember this is for “action verb” and -에 is for ‘있다/없다’.  For example,
백화점에서 만나요.  Let’s meet at the department store.
식당에서 점심을 먹어요. I am eating at a restaurant.

It also means ‘from somewhere’, for example
서울에서 왔어요. I am from Seoul.
서울에서 부산까지 멀어요.  It is far from Seoul to Busan.

6. -하고 : ‘and’ and ‘with’ = 와/과 or (이)랑
-하고 has two meaning, which are ‘and’ between two nouns and ‘with someone/animal’.  For example,
1) 수박하고 사과를 안 먹어요.  I don’t eat watermelons and apples.
2) 엄마하고 백화점에 갔어요.  I went to the department store with my mom.
* For formal form of 하고 is 와/과.  For example,
1) 수박 사과를 안 먹습니다.
2) 의사 이야기하세요.
* You will see (이)랑 sometimes instead of 하고.  (이)랑 is very casual form, so you only use it in a casual situation.  For example,
1) 수박이랑 사과를 안 먹어요.
2) 엄마 백화점에 갔어요.

7. -도  : ‘also’ and ‘even’ 
As I said earlier, it is a particle, so we shouldn’t use this as an adverb.
1) 고기를 먹었어요. 그리고 소주도 마셨어요.  I ate meat and also drank Soju.
고기를 먹었어요. 도 소주 마셨어요. (X)
2) 한 명도 안 왔어요. Even one person didn’t come.  : -도 is usually used with numbers, and means ‘even’.

8. -만 : ‘only’
Many students use this like an adverb because in English ‘only’ is an adverb. BUT 만 is ONLY attached to a noun.  For example,
사과만 안 먹어요.  Apples are only fruit I do not eat.
저만 한국 사람이에요.  I am the only Korean person.

9. -밖에 + negative word: ‘only’ 
It means similar to ‘-만’, however it needs an negative word such as ‘안’,  ‘못’,  ‘없어요’ or ‘몰라요’. For example,
저는 사과밖에 안 먹어요. I only eat apples.
저밖에 안 왔어요. I am the only one who came.
영어밖에 몰라요. I only know English.

You can listen to the audio by clicking this link. 

To Be Continued…

[Song] 올챙이 Tadpole

올챙이 

개울가에 올챙이 한 마리

꼬물꼬물 헤엄치다

뒷다리가 쏙 앞다리가 쏙

팔딱팔딱 개구리 됐네.

꼬물꼬물 꼬물꼬물 꼬물꼬물

뒷다리가 쏙 앞다리가 쏙

팔딱팔딱 개구리 됐네.

Vocabulary>>

개울가 : a side of a creek

올챙이 : tadpole

: one ( the infinitive form is 하나)

마리 : a particle for animals

꼬물꼬물 : a mimetic word that describes some thing wriggles.

헤엄치다 : swim

뒷다리 : back legs

: a mimetic word that describes some thing comes out from somewhere in a short time.

앞다리 : front legs

팔딱팔딱 : a mimetic word that describes some thing jumps or hops.

개구리 : frog

되다 : become

[Song] 취중진담 Drunk confession


– 취한 가운데 진심을 얘기하는 것. Drunk confession

This is one of my favorite songs.  (이 노래는 제가 제일 좋아하는 노래 중에 하나예요.)  김동률’s voice is very soft like cotton candy.  (김동률의 목소리는 정말 솜사탕처럼 부드러워요.) I should post his songs more often!!!!

gtnn

 

그래 난 취했는지도 몰라
Yes, I might be drunk
실수인지도 몰라
This could be a mistake
아침이면 까마득히 생각이 안 나 불안해할지도 몰라
Perhaps I’ll be anxious in the morning because I can’t remember anything
하지만 꼭 오늘 밤엔 해야 할 말이 있어
However, there is something I must say tonight
약한 모습 미안해도
I’m sorry about my drunkenness
술김에 하는 말이라 생각지는 마
But please don’t think this is drunk-talking

언제나 네 앞에 서면
Whenever I face you
준비했었던 말도 왜 난 반대로 말해 놓고 돌아서 후회하는지
I mess up everthing I had prepared, turn back and regret
이젠 고백할게
I’ll now confess
처음부터 너를 사랑해 왔다고
That I’ve loved you from the beginning
이렇게 널 사랑해
I love you like this
어설픈 나의 말이 촌스럽고 못 미더워도
My awkward words may be childish and untrustworthy
그냥 하는 말이 아냐
But I’m not just saying this
두번 다시 이런 일 없을 거야
This would never happen again
아침이 밝아오면
When the sun rises
다시 한번 널 품에 안고 사랑한다 말할게
I’ll hold you in my arms and tell you that I love you once again

자꾸 왜 웃기만 하는 거니
Why are you just smiling
농담처럼 들리니
Do you think I’m kidding?
아무말도 하지 않고
Why aren’t you saying anything
어린애 보듯 날 바라보기만 하니
and just staring at me as if I was a child

언제나 네 앞에 서면
Whenever I face you
준비했었던 말도 왜 난 반대로 말해놓고 돌아서 후회하는지
I mess up everthing I had prepared, turn back and regret
이젠 고백할게
I’ll now confess
처음부터 너를 사랑해왔다고
That I’ve loved you from the beginning
이렇게 널 사랑해
I love you like this
어설픈 나의 말이 촌스럽고 못 미더워도
My awkward words may be childish and untrustworthy
아무에게나 늘 이런 얘기하는 그런 사람은 아냐
I’m not someone who always says this to anyone
너만큼이나 나도 참 어색해
Like you, I’m feeling quite awkward as well
너를 똑바로 쳐다볼 수 없어
I can’t face you straight
자꾸만 아까부터 했던 말 또 해 미안해
I’m sorry that I’m repeating everything I said before
하지만 오늘 난 모두 다 말할 거야
But tonight, I’m going to tell everything

 

Vocabulary>>

취하다
be drunk
까마득히 잊어버리다/모르다
completely forget/totally have no idea
술김에 말하다
disguised in drink
고백하다
confess
어설프다
clumsy, amateur
촌스럽다
countrified, not fashionable
못 미덥다(always with negation words)
not reliable, not dependable
품에 안다
hold / hug

 

Many Koreans make mistakes when they write Korean.  I wrote down few mistakes that Koreans often make.

1. -ㄹ께(X) -> -ㄹ게(O) : Because the pronunciation of ‘ㄹ게’ is [ㄹ께], so a lot of Koreans write this ㄹ께, but the correct one is -ㄹ게.

2 .-ㄹ 꺼야(X) -> -ㄹ 거야(O) : It is the same as the one above. Because of the pronunciation of ‘-ㄹ 거야’, they often write this ‘ㄹ 꺼야’, but the correct one is ‘ㄹ 거야’.

If you see someone(Korean) write it wrong, please correct them! 🙂