[Grammar] Direction particle -으로/로

I put a post about ‘-(으)로’ which means ‘method’, ‘means’ or ‘way’ in the previous post(click).   -(으)로 also is used for indicating a direction, it can be translated ‘to’ or ‘toward’ in English.


 Nouns(consonants ending)
앞으로, 옆으로, 집으로, 시청으로, 부산으로
 Nouns(vowel or ㄹ ending)
위로, 아래로, 뒤로, 출구로, 서울로,


consonant ending
으로 가세요.
Go forward.
왼쪽으로 도세요.(돌다: turn)
Turn left.
이 버스(가) 시청으로 가요?
Is this bus going to(toward) the City Hall?
으로 가고 있어요.
I am on my way home.
위층으로 올라 가세요.
Go upstairs.
vowel or ㄹending
아래 내려 가세요.
Go down.
Fell down on my back.
4번 출구 나오세요.
Come out from(toward) Exit 4.
이 기차가 서울로 가요?
Is this train going to Seoul?

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

-(으)로 is very similar to the destination particle ‘-에’, but the difference is that ‘-으로’ emphasizes “direction/headed” and ‘-에’ focuses on ‘destination’.  For example,

집으로 가고 있어요. means “I am heading for home”; it might not mean ‘the destination is home’. 집에 가고 있어요. means “I am going home”; the destination is home.  So “집에 가서 쉬세요(go home take a rest)” is correct, but “집으로 가서 쉬세요” is weird.  Also, You can say “서울에 도착했어요(arrive in Seoul) , but you can’t say “서울로 도착했어요“.


Verbs only with -(으), not -에
Verbs only with -에, not -(으)로
-(으)로 떠나다 : leave for
-(으)로 이사가다/오다 : move to
-(으)로 출발하다 : depart for
-에 도착하다 : arrive at/in



[Grammar] 있어요 possession and existence

있어요/없어요  have(possession), be at(existence)

있어요 has two different meanings. The first meaning is “have(possession)“, and the other one is “is/am/are at/in/on somewhere(existence)“. It is not just ‘is’, it means ‘is at/in/on somewhere(existence)‘. The opposite word for 있어요 is 없어요


1. Possession  : noun이/가 있어요. have a noun. 

i.e) (저는) 집이 있어요.  I have a house.
(저는) 돈이 있어요. I have money.
(저는) 아내가 있어요. I have wife.
사과가 없어요. I do not have an apple.
저는 한국 친구가 없어요. I do not have Korean friends.
저는 핸드폰이 없어요. I do not have a cell phone.

2. Existence  : noun이/가 place에 어요. noun is at/on/in a place.

선생님이 학교에 있어요.  The teacher is at the school.
민수 씨가 도서관에 있어요.  Minsu is at the library.
동생이 집에 있어요.  My younger sister(brother) is at home.
오빠가 집에 없어요.  My older brother is not at home.
형이 커피숍에 있어요. My older brother is at the coffee shop.
컴퓨터가 없어요. There is no computer at home.
도서관 책이 많이 있어요. There are lots of books at the library.
침대가 있어요. There is a bed in the room.
공원 꽃이 많이 있어요. There are a lot of flowers at the park.
* You can also listen to the pronunciation of these sentences here.

As you can see, when 있어요/없어요 mean “be at some place“, 있어요 follows after “-에” which is a place particle.

If you are confused by 있어요 and 이에요, please click here to learn more.