Particle -(이)나

Noun(vowel)+이나
Noun(consonant)+나

In this post, we are talking about (이)나, (이)나 is very common particle that comes on TOPIK. Let’s find out!


1. ‘choice’ , ‘A or B’.
주스를 주세요. Please give me tea or juice.
중국이나 미국에 갈 거예요. I am going to China or U.S.
경제학이나 경영학을 공부하고 싶어요. I want to study economics or business.

2. The previous noun is not the best choice or my favorite, but I still choose it.
밥은 없는데 그냥 이거 먹어. We don’t have rice, just eat this. (this is not the best choice, but I still give it to you.)
할 일도 없는데 영화 보지요. 뭐. I don’t have things to do, well, let’s watch a movie. (movie is not the best choice, but it is okay. )
밥이나 먹자. Let’s eat. (Eating is not my favorite thing to do now, but let’s do it.)

3. 이나 is attached 몇, 며칠, 얼마, it expresses “to ask/guess the number/amount” (Most cases you can omit 이나, because there is already a question word.)
사람이 몇 명이나 모였어요? How many people were there?
상하이를 여행하려면 며칠이나 걸려요? How many days does it take to travel Shanghai?
아이가 몇 살이나 됐어요? How old is the kid?

4. 이나 is attached to a number, it express that the number is more than the speaker expected.
어제 거기서 한 시간이나 기다렸어요. I waited for one hour over there yesterday. (one hour was very long time.)
비용이 백만 원이나 들어요? Does it cost one million Won? (one million Won is too much.)
** It is often compared with -밖에, please click here to learn the difference.

5. 이나 is attached to question words, 언제, 어디, 누구, 무엇, 아무, 아무 noun, it expresses ‘every’. We can translate as ‘—ever’
민수는 언제나 친절하게 사람을 대해요. Minsu always(whenever) treat people very friendly.
누구나(아무나) 들어올 수 있습니다. Anyone(Whoever) can come in.
무엇이나 물어보세요. Ask me anything(whatever).
공기는 어디에나 있어요. Air is everywhere(wherever).
아무 거나 다 잘 먹어요. I can eat any thing(whatever).

6. It doesn’t matter whether it is A or B.
지금이나 변한 게 별로 없네요. There is not much different before and now.
샌드위치 피자 다 괜찮아요. I am okay with sandwich or pizza, it doesn’t matter.

If you have any questions, please leave a comment in this post. 아무 질문이나 상관없어요! ^^

[Vocabulary] 아무 : 아무도(no one) and 아무나(any one)

아무도(no one) and 아무나(any one)

 

아무means ‘any(unspecific)’ or ‘no‘.  When it comes with a particle ‘-도’, it means ‘no’.  But when it comes with ‘-(이)나’, it means ‘any’.   If you use 아무도, you should use a negative word in the sentence.  For example, 

아무도
거기에 아무도 없었어요.  There was no one.
파티에 아무도 안 왔어요.  No one came to the party.
그 영화를 아무도 안 봤어요.  No one saw that movie.
숙제를 아무도 안 했어요.  No one did homework.

아무나
거기에 아무나 갈 수 있어요. Anyone can go there.
이 영화는 아무나 볼 수 있는 영화예요.  Anyone watch this movie.
아무나 데리고 오지 마세요.  Don’t bring a random person.

You can use 아무 as a determiner such as, 
아무 음식이나 먹으면 안 돼요. You should not eat random food(not specific).
아무 음료수나 다 괜찮아요. Any drinks are fine.
아무것이나(아무거나) 주세요. Please give me any kind.
아무것도 안 먹었어요. I have eaten nothing.
아무 말도 안 했어요.  I have said nothing.

* Particle -도 means ‘also’ and ‘even(in a negative sentence)’.  For example,

저도 가고 싶어요.  I also want to go.
저는 한국 사람이에요.  제 남자 친구도 한국 사람이에요.  I am Korean, my boyfriend also is Korean.

한 번도 안 가 봤어요.  I have been there even one time.
한 명도 안 왔어요.  Even one person did not come.

 

* Particle -(이)나 means ‘or’ and ‘a lot more than I expected’ when it is with numbers. For example,

김밥이나 비빔밥을 시켜 주세요. Please order Gimbop or Bibimbop.
신촌 역이나 홍대 역에서 만나요. Let’s meet Shinchon station or Hongdae station.

냉면을 세 그릇이나 먹어요?  Eat three bowls of cold noodles? (Speaker thinks three bowls are a lot)
어제 술을 다섯 병이나 마셨어요.  I drank five bottles of alcohol. (Speaker thinks five bottles a lot)
백만 원이나 썼어요?  Did you use a million Won? (Speaker thinks a million one is a lot)