[Reading] 오늘 뭐 해요? What are you doing today?

저는 무역 회사에 다녀요. 월요일부터 금요일까지 회사에서 일해요. 매주 월요일 아침에 회의가 있어요. 그래서 아침 7시에 회사에 가요. 저는 월요일이 정말 싫어요.

보통 6시에 일이 끝나요. 화요일, 목요일 저녁에 2 시간 동안 친구하고 테니스를 쳐요. 테니스장이 회사 근처에 있어요. 수요일하고 금요일에는 학원에서 스페인어를 배워요. 저는 스페인어를 정말 좋아해요.

주말에는 회사에 안 가요. 토요일에는 친구하고 공원에 가요. 공원에서 친구하고 같이 운동해요. 일요일에는 집에서 쉬어요. 집에서 영화를 봐요.

오늘은 수요일이에요. 오늘 뭐 해요?

 

단어와 문법 >

월요일 / 화요일수요일목요일금요일토요일일요일 : Monday/Tuesday/Wednesday/Thursday/Friday/Saturday/Sunday
: I, me
-은/는 : the topic particle (click here to study)
무역 회사 : trading company
-에 다니다 (다녀요) : attend, go somewhere regularly
time 부터 : from,since
-까지 : until, to, by
-에서 : a place particle like at, on, in (click here to study)
일하다 (일해요) : to work (present tense : click here to study present tense)
매주 : every week
아침 : morning, breakfast
-에 : a time particle (click here to study)
회의 : business meeting
-이/가 : a subject particle
있다 (있어요) : to be at, to have
그래서 : therefore, so
7시 : 일곱 시(click here to study how to read time)
가다 (가요) : to go (present tense)
보통 : usually
정말 : really
싫다 (싫어요) : to dislike
: work, event
-이/가 끝나다 (끝나요) : to be finished (present tense)
저녁 : evening, dinner
시간 : hour, time
time 동안 : for time
테니스 : tennis
치다 (쳐요) : to hit, play
테니스장 : tennis court
Noun 근처 : near noun
-하고 : with, and (click here to study)
학원 : private institute(afternoon school)
스페인어 : Spanish
배우다 (배워요) : to learn (present tense)
좋아하다 (좋아해요) : to like (present tense)
주말 : weekend
: not (click here to study)
친구 : friend
공원 : park
같이 : together [가치] 
운동하다 (운동해요) : to work (present tense)
: house, home
쉬다(쉬어요) : to rest ( present tense)
영화 : movie
보다 (봐요) : to watch (present tense)
: what
하다 (해요) : do

You can listen to the audio file by clicking here. 

 

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[Grammar] 한국어 조사 Korean Particles/ makers part1

There are lots of particles in Korean, some books call them markers.  I will call them particles here. Korean Particles mostly attached to a noun, so there is no space between nouns and particles.  Let’s see what kind of particles are in Korean.

1. Subject particles -이/가 
Noun(ends with a consonant) + 이
Noun(ends with a vowel) + 가
Subject particles attach to a noun to tell us that noun is a subject in a sentence.  For example,
     선생님이 여자예요.  The teacher is a female.
     의자가 어디에 있어요?  Where is the chair?

Koreans often drop the subject particle –이/가  when they make conversations.
i.e) 사과 있어요? Do you have apples?
사과 없어요. I don’t have apples.
돈 있어요?    Do you have money?

2. Object particles -을/를
Noun(ends with a consonant) + 을
Noun(ends with a vowel) + 를
Object particles attach to a noun to tell us that noun is an object in a sentence. For example,
    밥을 안 먹었어요.   I didn’t eat a meal.
    커피를 마셔요.  I am drinking coffee.

3. Topic particles or comparison particles -은/는
Noun(ends with a consonant) + 은
Noun(ends with a vowel) + 는
When -은/는 are topic particles, they substitute subject particles or object particles, which means you cannot use -이/가(or 을/를) and 은/는 at the same time.  Thus, many students get confused by subject particles and topic particles.  I explain these two particles in this post(click). For example,
     선생님은 한국 사람이에요.  The teacher is Korean.
     저는 진우예요.  I am Jin-woo.

-은/는 also can mean ‘comparison’.   For example,
     사과는 좋아해요. 그런데 수박은 안 좋아해요.  I like apples, but I don’t like water melons. (사과를 => 사과는  수박을 => 수박은 )
     제 친구는 영어를 잘해요. 그런데 저는 영어를 못해요.  My friend speaks English very well, but I don’t. (제 친구가 => 제 친구는, 제가 => 저는 )

4. Time and place particle -에 
-에 has lots of meanings, however I only want to talk about time and place here.  For example,
1)  어디에 있어요?  Where is it? : It means ‘existence‘, so it is used with 있다/없다/살다
2)  학교에 가요. I am going to school.  : It means ‘destination‘, so it is used with 가다/오다/다니다
3)  2 시에 만나요.  Let’s meet at 2.  : It means ‘time‘ for this verb/adjective happens.
(However some nouns such as 지금, 어제, 오늘, 내일, 매일, 언제etc don’t add -에)

5. Place particle -에서 (at, in, on)
-에서 is a place particle with “action verbs“.  Many students get confused this with -에, but remember this is for “action verb” and -에 is for ‘있다/없다’.  For example,
백화점에서 만나요.  Let’s meet at the department store.
식당에서 점심을 먹어요. I am eating at a restaurant.

It also means ‘from somewhere’, for example
서울에서 왔어요. I am from Seoul.
서울에서 부산까지 멀어요.  It is far from Seoul to Busan.

6. -하고 : ‘and’ and ‘with’ = 와/과 or (이)랑
-하고 has two meaning, which are ‘and’ between two nouns and ‘with someone/animal’.  For example,
1) 수박하고 사과를 안 먹어요.  I don’t eat watermelons and apples.
2) 엄마하고 백화점에 갔어요.  I went to the department store with my mom.
* For formal form of 하고 is 와/과.  For example,
1) 수박 사과를 안 먹습니다.
2) 의사 이야기하세요.
* You will see (이)랑 sometimes instead of 하고.  (이)랑 is very casual form, so you only use it in a casual situation.  For example,
1) 수박이랑 사과를 안 먹어요.
2) 엄마 백화점에 갔어요.

7. -도  : ‘also’ and ‘even’ 
As I said earlier, it is a particle, so we shouldn’t use this as an adverb.
1) 고기를 먹었어요. 그리고 소주도 마셨어요.  I ate meat and also drank Soju.
고기를 먹었어요. 도 소주 마셨어요. (X)
2) 한 명도 안 왔어요. Even one person didn’t come.  : -도 is usually used with numbers, and means ‘even’.

8. -만 : ‘only’
Many students use this like an adverb because in English ‘only’ is an adverb. BUT 만 is ONLY attached to a noun.  For example,
사과만 안 먹어요.  Apples are only fruit I do not eat.
저만 한국 사람이에요.  I am the only Korean person.

9. -밖에 + negative word: ‘only’ 
It means similar to ‘-만’, however it needs an negative word such as ‘안’,  ‘못’,  ‘없어요’ or ‘몰라요’. For example,
저는 사과밖에 안 먹어요. I only eat apples.
저밖에 안 왔어요. I am the only one who came.
영어밖에 몰라요. I only know English.

You can listen to the audio by clicking this link. 

To Be Continued…

[Grammar] -에서 Place particle

-에서 Place particle

 

We have learned the place particle -에 on the previous post(click), -에 is a place particle which means ‘existence(-에 있어요/없어요)’ or ‘direction(-에 가요/와요)’.

-에서 is also a place particle, but this is for an action, such as “I work at home”, “I study at the library” or “I eat lunch at a restaurant”.  In those sentences, ‘work’, ‘study’ and ‘eat’ have actions, you “do” something.  Let’s look at sentences below.

에서 텔레비전을 봐요.(보다:watch) I am watching TV at home.
학교에서 공부해요.(공부하다:study) I am studying at my school.
회사에서 일해요.(일하다:work) I am working at my company.
도서관에서 책을 읽어요.(읽다:read) I am reading books at the library.
커피숍에서 친구를 만나요.(만나다:meet) I am meeting my friend at the coffee shop.
극장에서 영화를 봐요.(보다:watch) I am watching a movie at the theater.
백화점에서 신발을 사요.(사다:buy) I am buying shoes at the department store.
친구 집에서 컴퓨터 게임해요.(게임하다:play a game) I am playing a computer game at my friend’s home.

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

* Here is the difference between 에 and 에서. -에 is used for existence(있어요/없어요/살아요) and destination(가요/와요/다녀요), while 에서 is used for action verbs.

 

* 에서 also means ‘from a place’, check this out by clicking here.