What is the difference between 나 and 저?

and both mean ‘I’ or ‘me’. is a humble way to say. When you talk to a person who is older or higher position than you or stranger, you have to use . On the other hand, is used for friends(the same age) or a person who is younger than you. Therefore is often used with casual endings which is 아/어/여 or ㄴ/는다 while is often used with polite endings such as -아/어/여요 or -(스)ㅂ니다.

and are often used with particles like 이/가(subject particles), 을/를(object particles), 한테(to), 하고(with/and). For example,

+가 =>가(it is not 나가)
+가 => 가 (it is not 저가)

+를 =>
+를 =>

+한테 => 한테
+한테 =>한테

+하고 =>하고
+하고 =>하고

 

Sentence>

가 먹었어.
가 먹었어요.

그 사람이 를 좋아한다.
그 사람이 를 좋아합니다.

한테 줘.
한테 주세요.

하고 가자.
하고 가요.

[Grammar] Verb/adjective endings

Verb/adjective endings

 

In Korean, there are three types of verb ending for a conversation.

(1) Formal verb ending  -(스)ㅂ니다 : This is used for formal situation such as a report, a test, a meeting, a writing or in the army etc.
e.g) 학교에 갑니다 (go)
집에 옵니다(come)
밥을 먹었습니다(ate)
이 옷을 입을 겁니다(will wear)

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

 

(2) Friendly verb ending -아/어/요 : This is used for normal situation such as talking to family, co-workers, classmates or a teacher etc. How ever you use this to a person who is older than you or higher position.
e.g) 학교에 가요(go)
집에 와요(come)
밥 먹었어요(ate)
이 옷 입을 거예요(will wear)

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

 

(3) Informal verb ending  -아/어 : This is very similar to the friendly verb ending, but there is no ‘-요’.  You use this to your friends(the same as you) or a person who is younger than you and very close to you.  You will hear this a lot from Korean songs or TV shows.  They use this verb ending because they already know each other, and they are older than others who are listening to them.
e.g) 학교 가(go)
집에 와(come)
밥 먹었어(ate)
이 옷 입을 거야(will wear)

You can also listen to the pronunciation here.

 

polite_verb_ending

From now on, when you watch a TV show, think about their relationship carefully. Then, you will know the difference. 🙂

 

[Grammar] Honorific verb particle -(으)시

Honorific verb particle (으)시

 

When you talk to Koreans, you should consider two things which are (1)”Who are you talking to?” and (2)”Who are you talking about(subject)?”.  In situation (1), you have to consider if you should use “polite ending” or “informal ending”.  On the other hand, in situation (2), you should think about if you should add the honorific verb particles “-(으)시” in the verb or adjective.

Let me show you what is the polite ending and what is honorific ending.

Verb/Adjective Honorific particle Polite ending Actual speech
가다 어요 가세요
보다 ㅂ니다 보십니다
예쁘다 었어요 예쁘셨어요
많다 으시 었습니다 많으셨습니다
읽다 으시 ㄹ 거예요 읽으실 거예요
받다 으시 ㄹ 겁니다 받으실 겁니다

You already know the polite endings which are -요 or -(스)ㅂ니다.  If you don’t know you can review the polite endings here.

 

Let’s get back to the honorific particle. If you are talking about a person(subject) who is older than you, you should use the honorific particle.

★ How to use?
 Verb/Adjective(vowel ending)        +     시   + verb ending
 Verb/Adjective(consonant ending) + 으시   + verb ending

V/A

Honorific particle verb ending(friendly) Actual speech

가다

어요 가셔요(old) 가세요(now)

오다

었어요 오셨어요

주다

ㄹ 거예요 주실거예요
읽다 으시 어요 읽으셔요(old)

읽으세요(now)

받다 으시 었어요

받으셨어요

닫다 으시 ㄹ 거예요

닫으실거예요

You can see there is ★ symbol in the table and it says “old”.  If -(으)시 combine with  어요, it should be -(으)셔요; however, it is in the 50’s or 60’s expression.  We use -(으)세요 these days.

Let’s put the honorific particle and the polite ending together.

-(으)시+어요 => -(으)세요
-(으)시+었어요=> -(으)셨어요
-(으)시+ㄹ 거예요=> -(으)실 거예요

e.g) 아버지가 내일 부산에 가세요.           My father is going to Busan tomorrow.
할머니가 집에 오셨어요.                    My grandmother came home.
할아버지가 선물을 주실 거예요.        My grandfather will give me a gift.
선생님이 책을 읽으세요.                    The teacher is reading a book.
어머니가 편지를 받으셨어요.             My mother got a letter.
아주머니가 창문을 닫으실 거예요.     The lady will close the window.

You can listen to the pronunciation here.

You can also put the formal verb ending like this.

V/A

Honorific particle Verb ending(formal) Actual speech

ㅂ니다 가십니다
었습니다

오셨습니다

ㄹ겁니다 주실겁니다
으시 ㅂ니다

읽으십니다

으시 었습니다

받으셨습니다

으시 ㄹ겁니다

닫으실겁니다

Put the honorific particle and the verb ending together!

-(으)시 + ㅂ니다 => -(으)십니다
-(으)시 + 었습니다 => -(으)셨습니다
-(으)시 + ㄹ 겁니다 => -(으)실 겁니다

I hope this is the end of the honorific particle, but unfortunately, there are more. I will post it more in the next one.  If you have any questions, please reply here.

아자아자!!!